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Contact: Kathryn Ryan, 914-740-2100, kryan@liebertpub.com
Researchers Achieve 4D Printing of Programmable Shape-Changing Structures

New Rochelle, NY, November 2, 2017—A new study describes 3D printing of Shape Memory Polymers to produce active meta-materials that can be programmed to form versatile shapes and are then able to recover their original state when heated to above their activation temperatures.  This innovative combination of 3D printing, thermoviscoelastic meta-materials, and programmable design to create 4D shape-transforming structures is reported in an article published in 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available free on the 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing website until December 2, 2017.

Marius Wagner, Tian Chen, and Kristina Shea, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, present the details of their fabrication method, experimental design, and the results of simulation studies to evaluate the transformational behavior of the meta-materials in the article entitled "Large Shape Transforming 4D Auxetic Structures." The researchers demonstrate that the active meta-materials can achieve large area changes of up to 200% within a programming and recovery cycle. A specific example shows the fabrication of a multi-letter-based structure that is then programmed into a jumbled circular shape and is able to regain its original structure on temperature-based activation.

"This work provides a significant step forward in 4D printing capabilities and is a wonderful example of the blending together of materials, mechanics, and design to enable such beautiful results," says Editor-in-Chief Skylar Tibbits, Director, Self-Assembly Lab, MIT, and Founder & Principal, SJET LLC.

About the Journal
3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing is the only peer-reviewed journal focused on the rapidly moving field of 3D printing and related technologies. Led by Editor-in-Chief Skylar Tibbits Director, Self-Assembly Lab, MIT, and Founder & Principal, SJET LLC., the Journal explores emerging challenges and opportunities ranging from new developments of processes and materials, to new simulation and design tools, and informative applications and case studies. Published quarterly online with open access options and in print, the Journal spans a broad array of disciplines to address the challenges and discover new breakthroughs and trends within this groundbreaking technology. Tables of content and a sample issue may be viewed on the 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing website.

About the Publisher
Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers is a privately held, fully integrated media company known for establishing authoritative medical and biomedical peer-reviewed journals, including Big Data, Soft Robotics, New Space, and Tissue Engineering. Its biotechnology trade magazine GEN (Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News) was the first in its field and is today the industry’s most widely read publication worldwide. A complete list of the firm’s more than 80 journals, newsmagazines, and books is available on the Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers website.