Searching for authors

The following search options can be used to find papers by specific authors: "All journals", "All publications", "This journal", and "This book". In addition, advanced search allows you to limit your search to author names only.

When searching for author names, format your query as follows: "Doe", "Doe, J" or "Doe J". The search does not support spelled-out first and middle names or wildcards in author searches.


Saved search alerts

Please note: A free user account is required to utilize this feature.

An added benefit of saved searches is that you may request to be notified when new content that matches your search criteria has been added to

To do so, use Simple or Advanced Search to run a saved search by clicking "Run" next to the saved search name. Then select "Monthly" or "Weekly" from the drop-down menu below the "Save search" heading on the Search Results page.

Saved search alerts will be sent to the e-mail address you provided at the time of registration (or a new one if you've since changed that address). Saved search alerts can be canceled at any time by selecting "Never" from the drop-down menu.


Search characteristics

All site searches, as well as CrossRef Search, are case insensitive. For example, searches for "" and "" will return identical results.

All site searches use stemming to return relevant search results. For example, searches for "figure," "figures," and "figuring" will return identical results.

In addition, site searches support two wildcard characters: the asterisk (*) and question mark (?). An asterisk represents zero or more characters at the end of a word, while a question mark represents any character within a word.

An example of using an asterisk is "adeno*", which returns "adenovirus," "adenocarcinoma," etc. An example of using a question mark is "b?nd," which returns "bond," "bend," etc.

Wildcards may not be used to begin search critera, nor may they be stand-alone critera or appear within quotes-delimited phrases (i.e., "").


Types of searches offers three methods of searching full text content. In addition, we provide CrossRef Search, a collaborative effort that includes relevant results from other scientific, technical, and medical journals.

The most basic form of search is found on publication pages. These text boxes allow you to search the full text of a selected publication (or issue).

Simple search, accessible from the menu bar (click "Search"), allows you to select a specific publication or group of publications to search in. You may also run a previous search.

Advanced search offers the highest level of content filtering. Use this to specify additional search criteria, including author(s), publication year, and more. Advanced boolean operators are supported.

Our content is also indexed in Google, Google Scholar, and Windows Live Academic Beta.


Refining your search

After performing a search you will be taken to the Search Results page where metadata for matching content will be displayed in order of relevancy (default) or publication date. From here there are two ways to refine your search.

You can choose to return to the Advanced Search page to modify your search criteria. To do this, click "Modify Search" at the top of the Search Results page.

Alternatively, you may further narrow your search by searching within the results (this is called an iterative search). To do so, enter additional search criteria below the "Narrow search" heading on the Search Results page and click "Search".


Session search history

A "session" is a single instance of using Every search that you perform during a given session is available to be re-run during that session only (or future sessions if you elect to save it).

To run a previous search from the current session, use Simple or Advanced Search and select the appropriate session search from the drop-down menu. This menu will be reset with each new session.


Saving your search

Please note: A free user account is required to utilize this feature.

This feature allows registered users to save search criteria for later use. To do so, perform any search and enter a search name below the "Save search" heading on the Search Results page and click "Save".

You can re-run saved searches by using Simple or Advanced Search. To do so, open one of these search pages and select the appropriate search from the drop-down list. Your search will be run with the saved criteria.

Saved searches are displayed with the dates originally run and most recently run. You can delete a saved search at any time by clicking "Delete" next to the appropriate search.

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