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Antioxidants & Redox Signaling

Editor-in-Chief: Chandan K. Sen

ISSN: 1523-0864 • 36 Issues Annually • Online ISSN: 1557-7716

Current Volume: 21

Latest Impact Factor* is 7.667

*2013 Journal Citation Reports® published by Thomson Reuters, 2014

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For Authors

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  • Manuscript Submissions

    Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Submission Benefits Package

    Your submission to Antioxidants & Redox Signaling provides you with robust tools and support to ensure maximum impact and readership for your work. By submitting your manuscript, you’ll receive:

    • Complimentary 12-month AuthorCite® membership
      Exclusively licensed by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., AuthorCite® delivers a 360-degree view of your article from submission to publication to market impact. With an AuthorCite® membership, you’ll receive end-to-end manuscript submission tracking, a custom online microsite to promote you and your research, a professional suite of metrics and analytics to measure the impact of your article, 30-day OpenLink™ article sharing, and much more.
    • Rapid, rigorous peer-review and editorial attention
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    Submitting Your Manuscript

    Submitting your manuscript to Antioxidants & Redox Signaling delivers a comprehensive benefits program that ensures high-quality review of your research and maximum impact for your work. This includes a one-year membership to AuthorCite™, a robust author services platform for increasing the visibility of your research, and includes the ability to freely share your article for 30 daysAntioxidants & Redox Signaling carries a manuscript processing charge* of $75.00 USD upon submission of each new manuscript.

    Upon payment, you will be provided a Manuscript Submission Code, and will be prompted to enter this information when uploading your files to our peer-review system.  Please note:  Securing a token does not automatically create an account in our peer-review system. If you do not already have an account, you will be asked to create one before you can begin your submission.

    Submissions do not need to be completed at once. Submitting authors/agents may begin the submission process, save their work, and return to the site to complete the upload(s) at a later time. There is no limit on the number of times one can save their work and subsequently resume the submission. Doing so will not incur additional charges.

    Invited work such as Forum articles, Comprehensive Invited Reviews, Editorials, Redox Pioneer articles and any other solicited work are not subject to this fee. Authors who have been invited by the Editor-in-Chief to submit a paper can request a waiver by sending an email to submission@liebertpub.com. Upon approval, a one-time exception code will be issued in order to bypass the submission fee.

    Click here to submit your paper via our fast and user-friendly electronic submission system.

    Manuscript Revisions

    Processing charges and submission codes are NOT required for revisions to previously submitted papers. To upload a revision of a paper, the submitting author should log in to their Author Center at http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/ars and click on “Revised Manuscripts in Draft.” The paper will appear in this area, and the submitting author will be able to upload revised files without paying any charges or entering a submission code.

    Please be sure to follow the Instructions for Authors below on Manuscript Preparation.  Authors whose submissions do not comply with the Instructions for Authors will have their papers un-submitted so that the file(s) may be adjusted accordingly. Directions regarding the necessary corrective actions will be provided in an email to the corresponding author at the time the paper is un-submitted. The submitting author/agent will then be provided the opportunity to re-upload the corrected file(s). If a paper is un-submitted, the paper will reside in the corresponding author’s “Author Center” as a draft, and the submitting author/agent will be able to make the necessary adjustments and re-upload the paper without incurring another manuscript processing charge.  

    *The manuscript processing charge is independent of editorial decision and is non-refundable.

    Instructions for Authors

    (Please read in full. Revised in March 2013)


    Antioxidants & Redox Signaling (ARS) is the top-ranked international, interdisciplinary peer-reviewed publication that encompasses the emerging field of antioxidants and redox biology. Starting 2013, the Journal is published 36 times per year and is available in both print and online.  Starting 2013, ARS is published as two series: ARS-Discoveries (bimonthly) and ARS-Therapeutics (monthly).

    ARS welcomes highly innovative original contributions dealing with molecular aspects of reactive species, antioxidants, and other redox-dependent processes in biomedical and related systems. Redox-based therapeutics and impact on health care represents a key focus. The Journal features basic as well as clinical research articles and full length review articles. Original research communications must reflect extraordinary innovation and be extensive in nature. Appropriate videographic supplements are encouraged and viewed as a strength. Such supplements are required for methodological articles.

    To help defray the cost of printing, the Publisher requests that page charges of $65.00 USD per printed page be paid by all authors who have funds available from research grants or from their institutions. These page charge payments are NOT a prerequisite for publication of any article in Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. For authors who cannot afford to pay the page charges, appropriate letter of waiver from the head of their institution should be submitted to the Editor before submission of the manuscript. The Editor's office will correspond with the author’s institution to determine whether a page charge concession is justified. 
    Page charges are waived (color charges apply) for authors of Forum Articles and for those who contribute Comprehensive Invited Review. 

    Online submissionARS only considers online submissions. Any other form of submission will not be considered.  Once a manuscript is successfully submitted, the submitting author should expect to receive an email notification within hours. Only senior authors of a work who take complete scientific as well as financial responsibility of a submission may submit the work. Manuscript cannot be submitted on behalf of the corresponding author by any agent other than the corresponding author's own office.


    Cover Letter: The submitting author must accept responsibility for the following:

      1. That the submitting author has the written consent from all authors to submit the manuscript and that all authors accept complete responsibility for the contents of the manuscript 

      2. That the manuscript is not currently under consideration elsewhere and the work reported will not be submitted for publication elsewhere until a final decision has been made as to its acceptability by the Journal (note that posting of submitted material on a website is considered pre-publication)

      3. That the manuscript is truthful original work

      4. That (where applicable) microarray data reporting, gene nomenclature, and research on fetal tissue matter has been done in compliance with Journal guidelines. If this is not applicable, please state so.

      5. If the manuscript contains color illustrations, indicate which figures print in color and which print in black & white (see notes below on COLOR REPRODUCTION)


    :  Please  upload  individual files of  all  manuscript material—do NOT upload a single PDF file containing all text, figure, and table files of your article. Once all individual files are uploaded on to Manuscript Central, the system will automatically create a single PDF proof for you and the peer-review process.


    All accepted manuscripts will be processed through plagiarism detection software, and any notice of acceptance is considered conditional, pending the review and verification of the plagiarism detection report.  If the report detects a high incidence of overlap in text, the Editor-in-Chief reserves the right to rescind the decision to accept the paper. 


    Initial submission of Forum Review Articles should not be made online. Such articles should be submitted by email as PDF files to the designated Forum Editor. Once accepted by the Forum Editor, please submit the article to ARS using the ARS Manuscript Central Online Submission system. Note that Forum Review Articles that are accepted by the Forum Editor will be reviewed for format and deficiencies in format will be subject to additional revision or rejection. Forum Original Research Communications must be directly submitted via the ARS Manuscript Central Online Submission system identifying the Forum Editor.  Authors will receive a final letter of acceptance from the online system only after all articles of that Forum have been acceptably submitted. That is when the Forum is ready to be scheduled for production.

    Authors of such Forum articles, already reviewed and accepted by the respective Forum Editor, are advised to perform the following:

      1. During online submission, the submitting author will be specifically asked for the name of a Forum Editor. Please correctly enter the name of the specific Editor of the Forum for which you have written the manuscript. Incorrect entries may markedly lengthen the manuscript handling process and may result in a rejection as a Forum Article.

      2. On the title page, above the title, identify the article as FORUM ORIGINAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATION or FORUM REVIEW ARTICLE, whichever is appropriate.

    To submit any review article, please contact the ARS Central Editorial Office (Chandan.Sen@osumc.edu) in advance.

    Peer Review Process

    Format.  Manuscripts that are not formatted strictly according to the guidelines described herein or in the guide for Online Submission will be administratively rejected without any peer review.

    ScienceARS can only accept a small fraction of the total manuscripts submitted. Only manuscripts reflecting an exceptionally high level of innovation and thorough in nature will be subjected to full-length review. Others will be triaged following preliminary review of scientific content. Examples of manuscripts that are typically not subjected to full-length review include: (a) in vitro findings that are not validated in vivo, although strikingly extraordinary in vitro  findings  are  exempt;  (b)  physical  and  biochemical characterization of an antioxidant without substantive evidence supporting in vivo relevance; (c) manuscripts where relevant data (e.g., microarray, sequences) have not been submitted to a public database; (d) results from the use of pharmacological inhibitors that have not been verified using appropriate genetic approaches; and (e) illustrations lacking appropriate statistical markings and/or self-explanatory legends. Manuscripts selected for full-length review are typically reviewed by a panel (4-6 reviewers for Original Research Communications, and 6-10 for Comprehensive Invited Reviews) of peers to maintain high standards and quality.

    Policy & Procedure. All manuscripts sent to reviewers are watermarked as "For Peer Review". All material under review is privileged information. It should not be used to the benefit of the reviewer unless it previously has been made public. It should not be shared with anyone unless necessary to the review process, in which case the names of those with whom the information was shared should be made known in writing  to those managing the review process. Material under review should not be copied and retained or used in any manner by the reviewer unless specifically permitted by the journal or reviewing organization and the author. If there is a violation of the above policy, it should be reported to the Editor-in-Chief in writing including all evidence supporting the claim. The Editor-in-Chief will evaluate the claim and as needed form a committee to review the claim and make recommendations.  Retraction: Should there be any reasonable concern about the quality or integrity of published data, the Editor will communicate with the corresponding author and may promptly issue a retraction if the author fails to defend the data to the Editor's satisfaction. This is done rapidly to protect the interest of ARS readership. Typically, the print version of retractions (not Epub ahead of print) address the cause of retraction for public records. In case of concerns related to violation of ethics, ARS will inform the author's institution and may rely on the institution's investigation for a final decision on the case. If authors need to correct or edit data in an accepted manuscript, they may do so by withdrawing the manuscript and entering a new submission. Authors found to be guilty of unethical conduct may be barred from submitting manuscripts to ARS.

    Original-Rebound Track. Scientific publication relies on efficient peer review. ARS recognizes that the peer review system is not without flaws.  “The worst except all the others that have been tried” – Winston Churchill’s quote on the democracy form of government may apply to peer review. To improve the efficiency and power of peer review, when possible, ARS engages a broad panel of reviewers so that extreme opinion of any single reviewer may be interpreted in light of comments by other experts. To protect author interest and innovative science, ARS relies on the concept of Rebound Peer Review  (see Sen CK. Antioxid Redox Signal. 16:293-6, 2012) on where manuscripts that have been rejected following full-length review may come back to ARS based on a credible open peer review process. Here, authors get to select experts who they know are best suited to judge the work in question. Manuscripts eligible. Only those full-length Originals that have been fully Rejected (not Major Revision or Withdrawn) following full-length review. Manuscripts rejected during the preliminary screening process are not eligible. Timeline. Must be submitted within 30 days from the date of rejection. Process. (i) Authors will identify four peer reviewers (for criteria see below) who accept to be named on the manuscript; (ii) Selected open peer reviewers will review the manuscript as well as peer review comments from the previous (anonymous) review cycle submitted to them by the author; (iii) Each open peer reviewer will submit two sections of peer review comments. The first page should contain reviewer name and complete affiliation including email address. Section A (not to exceed 300 words) will address whether the work is complete and represents outstanding significance and innovation recommend “ACCEPT AS IS” or “REJECT”. Acceptance may not be justified by citing merit of other articles in the journal and must be solely based on quality of science and depth of data; Section B (not to exceed 300 words) will address (itemized; state concern in brief and list your comment) why the concerns raised during the anonymous peer review system are not substantial to justify rejection. Both sections should be supported by references (not counted in word limit). Open reviewers should include a Conflict of Interest disclosure statement; (iv) Author will submit the exact manuscript that was rejected with no further changes except that the top of title page will be marked as “ORIGINAL RESEARCH – REBOUND TRACK”. Bottom of the title page should name (in full) the open reviewers as: “Sponsoring Peers: Tina A Das, Jane B Doe, Kay C Lee and Kim D Ho (see Review Comments online)”; (v) Comments of all four open reviewers will be included as SUPPLEMENTARY TEXT (one file). If all four open reviewers recommend acceptance, the work is likely to be accepted pending final evaluation of the submission package by ARS Editor-in-Chief. If accepted, all open review comments will be published as Supplementary Text online. This is an experimental track aimed at improving author satisfaction at a time when rejection rate has sharply risen. Selection of open peer reviewers (must meet all 3 criteria): (a) within the last five calendar years must have published as corresponding author at least three original publications (on topics broadly relevant to the manuscript in question) in journals with impact factor equal to or exceeding that of current ARS impact factor; (b) has publication history of at least 10 years or serves on ARS Editorial board; and (c) no conflict of interest with any of the authors of the manuscript in question – never published together – not from the same institution – no financial interest.



    (Materials & Methods appear after Discussion; Innovation section required)

    Type the entire manuscript, including figure legends, tables, and references, double-spaced using Microsoft Word. Leave 1-inch margins on all sides.

    Length: Length: Manuscripts should be written succinctly and should cite select references that are directly relevant. NEWS & VIEWS articles should not exceed a total of 2,000 words, excluding a maximum of 9 references and a NOTES section (see specific guidelines for News & Views articles below); ORIGINAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS should not exceed a total of 6,000 words (between 8–10 illustrations), excluding a maximum of 75 references and figure legends; methods related submissions must include a video supplement demonstrating the key steps.  See ORIGINAL-REBOUND track above; REVIEWS should be kept to a maximum of 8,000 (at least 8 illustrations), excluding a maximum of 200 references and figure legends. COMPREHENSIVE INVITED REVIEWS are to be between 15,000–17,000 words (at least 15 illustrations) long, excluding a maximum of 400 references and figure legends. Manuscripts not following these length related guidelines will be subjected to administrative rejection. Please list word count and reference numbers (excluding references and figure legends) on the Title Page. Additional material may be submitted as Supplements for online listing.

    Title page: At the top center, specify the type of article (e.g., Original Research Communication, Forum Original Research Communication, Forum Review Article, Comprehensive Invited Review, News & Views, or Editorial). Title page should list title of the article; author(s); department and institution in which the work was done, with city, state, or country, and zip code; an abbreviated title for the running head (not exceeding 50 characters, including spaces between words); name and address of corresponding author, contact telephone, fax number, and e-mail address. Where necessary, identify each author’s affiliation by superscript numbers matched to the appropriate institution.  Please list word count (excluding references and figure legends), reference numbers and number of greyscale illustrations and number of color illustrations on the Title Page. If color illustrations are for online only indicate that in parentheses [e.g. Color illustration: 3 (online 1 and hardcopy2)]

    Second page: Provide an abstract of no more than 250 words. For Original Articles, the Abstract should consist of the following sections: Aims, Results, Innovation and Conclusion. For review articles, the Abstract should consist of the following sections: Significance, Recent Advances, Critical Issues, and Future Directions.

    Following pages: The Abstract should be followed by the Introduction, Results, Discussion, Innovation, Materials and Methods, Acknowledgments, List of Abbreviations, References, Tables, and Figure legends. Begin each of these sections on a separate page. The Innovation section cannot exceed 100 words and cannot be diffused. In a sentence or two it must summarize the current state of the field and then cite specific results reported to explain how this work helps to substantially advance the field. If the work has clinical significance, please be sure to highlight that.  Do not regurgitate findings.

    A complete list of abbreviations (covering text as well as illustrations) arranged in alphabetical order must be provided at the end just before the Reference section.

    Number pages (bottom-center) consecutively; the first author’s last name should appear on each page. The source of cells utilized (species, sex, strain, race, age of donor, whether primary or established) should be clearly indicated. The source of reagents should be stated (name, city, and state within parentheses) when first cited. Publication of results is based on the principle that results must be verifiable. Authors must accept to make unique reagents available to qualified investigators either directly or through a recognized distributor. The text should be clear and concise, conforming to accepted standards of English style and usage. Unfamiliar or new terms should be defined when first used (see section on Abbreviations, Symbols, and Terminology). Jargon, clichés, and laboratory slang should not be used.

    For methodological articles, please include short video supplements including audio track demonstrating and explaining key procedures.


    The Journal publishes all accepted papers within 72 hours of acceptance in their unedited, uncorrected format. It is important to note that the information that is published online, and in all indexing services, is pulled directly from the data that is populated into the fields in Manuscript Central – NOT from the manuscript file – when the paper is originally uploaded to the system for peer review. Consequently, any errors contained in the system will remain on our website and all indexing services, including Medline, until the next revision of the article is published. As such, it is critical that authors enter all authors’ names correctly into the system at the time of submission.

    The next revision will take place after the corresponding author sees page proofs, makes any necessary corrections, and returns the changes to the Publisher. Once the alterations are completed, the revised version will be published on our website, and the newly corrected information will then be released to Medline/PubMed, in addition to any other indexing services in which the Journal is included.

    Please note that the typical time between acceptance of a paper and page proof distribution is approximately 4-8 weeks depending on the length and complexity of the paper.


    Author Disclosure Statement
    Immediately following the Acknowledgments section, include a section entitled “Author Disclosure Statement.”  This text must be part of your actual manuscript file.

    In this portion of the article, authors must disclose commercial associations that might create a conflict of interest in connection with submitted manuscripts. This statement should include appropriate information for EACH author, thereby representing  that  competing  financial  interests  of  all  authors  have been  appropriately  disclosed  according  to the  policy  of  the Journal.  It is important that all conflicts of interest, whether they are actual or potential, be disclosed. This information will remain confidential while the article is being reviewed and will not influence the editorial decision.

    Please see the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals at http://www.icmje.org/index.html#conflicts for further guidance. If no conflicts exist, the authors must state “No competing financial interests exist.”

    Comprehensive Invited Review

    If you are an authoritative expert (senior investigator with long standing and extensive publication record) in a field relevant to the Journal and are interested in contributing a Comprehensive Invited Review article on a topic of general interest, please write to the Editors-in-Chief. These articles are intended to be full-length critical appraisals of topics that would be of long-term archival value. Text book style coverage is strongly discouraged. Emphasis should be placed on late-breaking advances and critical treatment. ARS dedicates a substantial amount of space to these articles. To ensure balanced treatment of any given subject, these articles are typically reviewed by 6–10 experts in that field. These experts are identified in the publication as Reviewing Editors unless they opt against it.

    News & Views – Short Outstanding Observations

    This track aims at expediting publication of short communications of outstanding significance. It is recommended that authors refer to a sample article. Note that although sample articles may have a larger number of references, current reference number must be limited as specified below. Sample articles may be requested from the Central Editorial Office.  NEWS & VIEWS articles should not exceed a total of 2,000 words, excluding a maximum of 9 references (Supplemental Material not allowed), figure legends and a NOTES section to be placed before the Acknowledgments. It must include a section on Innovation (100 words) as required for mainstream articles. This section has a major influence on acceptability. Note that the “MATERIAL AND METHODS” part of these articles is moved to the NOTES. Do not shorten this section. Provide ALL details necessary to reproduce your work, including reagent source, etc.  Note that these articles are not arranged as the regular Introduction–Results–Innovation–Discussion–Material and Methods pattern. The manuscript is written with focus on certain themes in every paragraph as may be seen from sample articles. The tone of the text should focus on raising new questions in light of the observations made instead of drawing firm conclusions. Abstracts should be limited to no more than 200 words and avoid experimental details. Last line of the Abstract must propose a hypothesis based on observations reported. Title: Short title (100 characters) with a question mark at the end is mandatory. Sample Abstract: “Consumption of alcohol induces protein A in the human brain, which in turn causes specific degeneration of glial cells. We note that protein A is glycated under conditions of diabetes. Such glycation results in a gain of function of protein A, resulting in more extensive glial degeneration in response to alcohol consumption. Our observation leads to the hypothesis that the consumption of alcohol poses increased risk to diabetics compared to matched non-diabetic humans.” For general rules, please follow the guidelines given for regular articles.

    Redox Pioneers – Introducing our Most Cited to the New Generation and to the Scientific Community outside Redox Biology

    Anyone (author) may nominate a scientist (nominee) other than themselves who meets the following criteria: the nominee must be someone who (a) has published, as first/last author, at least one PubMed listed publication directly addressing antioxidant/redox biology that has been cited over 1000 times (per data from ISI, www.isiknowledge.com); (b) has published, as author (any rank), at least 10 publications that have each been cited over 100 times (per ISI data); and (c) has expressed, in writing, her/his willingness to be nominated by the individual for the ARS Redox Pioneer series. Once the above three criteria are met, the author may submit an article to ARS in the “REDOX PIONEER” track. The article must strictly meet the format criteria specified below. For general rules, please follow the guidelines given for regular articles.

    Title format: Redox Pioneer: Professor John Smith (articles will appear in PubMed as such).

    Page after Title Page: Include a 50 word summary introducing the author and her/his relationship to the nominee.

    Abstract (no more than 250 words): Start with “Dr. John Smith (Ph.D. 1966) is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because he has published at least one article on antioxidant/redox biology as first/last author that has been cited over 1000 times and has published at least 10 articles, each cited over 100 times”. Educational/professional training of Dr. Smith, with reference to institutions (55 words); Summary of top scientific contributions of Dr. Smith (100 words); Relevance of findings to human health (50 words).

    Main Body of the text (not to exceed 2000 words): Background, development, and training (250 words); Area of interest in redox biology, its significance, and how that interest developed (500 words); Description of key finding 1 (250 words, thoroughly referenced): provide this section with a short title highlighting the finding, then describe the finding and how it helped to move the field forward;  Description of key finding 2 (250 words); Description of key finding 3 (250 words); and Other Achievements and Current Position (500 words). A short quotation from the nominee is encouraged in this last section.

    Illustrations: The Background section should be supported by a personal photo in black and white (either alone or in a group with family or colleagues); each Key Finding section should be supported with a summary illustration—it could either be a data slide (reproduced with appropriate permission) or a schematic. Figure legends need to be fully explanatory, where the illustration may be understood without reading the main body of text. The section on current position should be supported with a current passport style photo).  Photos of the pioneer should not be numbered as figures, but should be labeled as PioneerPhoto1, PioneerPhoto2, etc.

    Supplemental illustrations (mandatory for online publication): Provide a tabulation of the articles (cited as is seen in ARS reference lists)—Table 1 will contain all published articles, where the nominee is the first/last author, that have been cited over 1000 times; Table 2 will contain all published articles, where the nominee is an author (any rank), that have been cited over 100 times. List each article and enter citation data and date recorded next to it.

    Supplemental information (not for publication, for peer review): Acceptance letter of the nominee; Full-length curriculum vitae of the nominee.

    Acknowledgment (not to exceed 250 words): The nominee may use this section to thank everyone who has played a key role in her/his career. "Professor John Smith thanks....."

    Peer Review: Each article is subject to peer review by a panel of top experts in the relevant field. Acceptance will be based on such peer review. If accepted, names of reviewers will appear on the article unless a reviewer specifically chooses to be anonymous. The nominee will also be invited to review for fact check.

    Cost:  If accepted, page charges will be waived for this track. However, the author is responsible for the cost of any color reproduction.


    It is mandatory that all articles using microarray data analysis comply with the Minimum Information About Microarray Experiments (MIAME) standard (www.fged.org).


    In accordance with the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC), authors should obtain approval for new human and mouse gene symbols. Additional information on gene nomenclature guidelines is available from the HGNC (http://www.genenames.org


    The Journal endorses the principles embodied in the Declaration of Helsinki and insists that all investigations involving humans be conducted in conformity with these principles. All animal experimentation reported must be conducted in conformity with internationally accepted principles. In describing surgical procedures, the type and dosage of the anesthetic agent should be specified. Curarizing agents are not anesthetics; if these were used, evidence must be provided that anesthesia of suitable grade and duration was employed. All articles involving the use of human fetuses, fetal tissue, embryos, and embryonic cells must adhere to the US Public Law 103–41, effective December 13, 2001. Editors are expected to reject articles in which evidence of the adherence to these principles is not apparent. They reserve the right to judge the appropriateness of the use of animals and humans in experiments. The Editors-in-Chief will adjudicate differences of opinion employing principles consistent with the content posted at: http://ethics.od.nih.gov/.


    Include in the manuscript a list of new or special abbreviations used in the article, with the spelled-out form of the definition. Internationally accepted biochemical abbreviations such as ADP, NADH, and pi do not need to be defined; other frequently used abbreviations need only to be defined at first mention. For commonly accepted abbreviations, word usage, symbols, etc., authors are referred to Scientific Style and Format: The CBE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (6th ed., 1994). Chemical and biochemical terms and abbreviations should be in accordance with the recommendations of the IUPAC system. IUB Combined Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature. Isotope specification should conform to the IUPAC system.


    Authors should follow Webster’s Third New International Dictionary for spelling and compounding.


    Journal policy is against inclusion of implicit or explicit promises that future work will be published.


    Horizontal and vertical lines should not be used in the background of any line or bar graph. It is critically important that dead space within illustration be kept to a minimum. Single column wide illustrations should not exceed 7.5 cm in width. Use font size that is not too small and clearly legible. For illustrations that must be unavoidably wider, the maximum limit is 15 cm for width. All parts (A, B, C...) of any illustration should be arranged on one page. Figure number or author name should not be printed on the face of the illustration. After you upload the illustration file, manuscript central will provide with a slot to paste the Figure number as well as figure legend. Figure legend should also be a part of the main body of the text.

    The use of Tables is discouraged. When unavoidable, type each table single- spaced with a brief title on a separate page. The title should be brief and informative. All explanatory matter, including explanation of abbreviations, should be in footnotes, not in the title. Horizontal and vertical lines should be omitted. Use Arabic numerals to number tables. Do not repeat information that is given in the text, and do not make a table for data that can be given in the text in one or two sentences. Table footnotes should be listed in order of their appearance and identified by standard symbols *, †, ‡, § for four or fewer; for five or more, use consecutive superior letters.


    Please follow these guidelines for submitting figures:

      1. Do NOT embed art files into a Word or PDF document.
      2. Line illustrations should be submitted at 1,200 dpi.
      3. Halftones and color should be submitted at a minimum of 300 dpi.
      4. Save as either TIFF or EPS files.
      5. Color art must be saved as CYMK–not RGB.
      6. Black and white art must be submitted as grayscale–not RGB.
      7. Do NOT submit PowerPoint, Bitmap, or Excel files
      8. All parts of one illustration must be arranged on the same page with appropriate marking of components (e.g. A, B, C...).

    Please name your artwork files with the submitting author’s name, i.e., SmithFig1.tif, SmithTable2.tif, etc.

    Additional Information About Art Files

    Converting Word or Excel files: Perhaps the best and easiest way to convert Word or Excel files into a format that is suitable for print is to scan them using the below guidelines:

      1. All files should be scanned at 100% size.
      2. 300 dpi
      3. Final color mode: cmyk.
      4. Save file as .tif or .eps.

    If you need directions on how to convert a Power Point slide to an acceptable format, go to http://www.liebertpub.com/MEDIA/pdf/ppconvert.pdf


    Submit high-quality digital copies using the ARS Manuscript Central Online submission system. If hardcopies are required for production, authors of accepted manuscripts will be notified by the production office.

    Figure legends should describe experimental conditions and all abbreviations used. Electrocardiograms, kymograms, and oscillograms should be prepared so that the cross- hatched background is eliminated. To avoid problems in processing, use non-photo, blue-ruled instead of black-ruled, recording paper for the originals.


    All authors submitting color illustrations, including those who have been invited to contribute, must cover the cost of color reproduction. Two levels of pricing are offered: (a) Hardcopy and online: it is estimated that authors will be charged at the rate of US$275 per piece of color art plus US$1,200 per page of color. The Publisher will provide the author with a more precise cost estimate when the figures are received; (b) Online only: for all such cases where the illustration is expected to be reproduced in color electronically but in black and white print, the legend should contain the following text in parentheses: “(To see this illustration in color the reader is referred to the web version of this article at www.liebertonline.com/ars)".  Electronic presentation of color illustrations will cost a flat fee of US$250 per page. For figure legends of color illustration submissions not containing the specific text in parentheses cited above, it will be assumed that the submitting author selects the hardcopy color reproduction option and is prepared to cover the cost of color reproduction. Withdrawal of color after peer review will result in administrative rejection.


    Authors are responsible for the accuracy of citations. References must be limited to directly pertinent published works or articles that have been accepted for publication. An abstract properly identified (Abstract) may be cited only when it is the sole source. Submitted articles can be cited in the text as “unpublished observations” and should not be included in the reference list. References should be double-spaced (do not single-space any line), arranged alphabetically by author, and numbered serially. The reference number should be placed in parentheses at the proper point in the text. Example: Oxidants serve as cellular messengers (1–3). The style of citation should be as follows, with the journal name abbreviated as in Medline. Journal articles. Example: 1. Moldovan L, Irani K, Moldovan NI, Finkel T, and Goldschmidt-Clermont PJ. The actin cytoskeleton reorganization induced by Rac1 requires the production of superoxide. Antioxid Redox Signal 1: 29–43, 1999. Book References. Author(s), title of book (main words capitalized), city of publication, publisher, year, and pages. Example: 2. Sen CK, Sies H, and Baeuerle PA. (Eds). Antioxidant and Redox Regulation of Genes. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2000, p. 562. Book Section References. Example: 3. Masutani H, Ueno M, Ueda S, and Yodoi J. Role of thioredoxin and redox regulation in oxidative stress response and signaling. In: Antioxidant and Redox Regulation of Genes, edited by Sen CK, Sies H, and Baeuerle PA. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2000, pp. 298–310. Internet Citation for World Wide Web Home Page. Author/editor (if known). Revision or copyright date, if available. Title of page (publication medium). Page publisher. URL (Protocol:Site/Path/File). Access date. References to government technical documents should be included only when the corresponding author ensures their availability. For style of citation of these documents, congress proceedings, chapters in books, etc., consult recent issues of the Journal. Citations such as “unpublished observations” or “personal communication” should not be included in the reference list but may be added in parentheses in the text. It is assumed that in “personal communications,” the author has secured the written permission of the person cited.


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    The author must obtain permission whenever it is required in conjunction with the reproduction of material such as figures and tables from copyrighted material. Written permission must be obtained from the publisher of the journal or book concerned. The publication from which the figure or table is taken must be listed in the reference list.  A footnote to a reprinted table or to the legend of a reprinted figure should read, “Reprinted by permission from Jones et al.,” and list the appropriate reference. All permissions listings must be shown in the manuscript—they cannot be entered on proofs.

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    NIH Public Access Policy: In order to assist our authors who have NIH funding to comply with this policy, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers will deposit the final accepted paper (after copy-editing and proofreading) to PubMed Central (PMC) on behalf of the authors. Authors need not take any action. The manuscript's public access posting on PMC will occur 12 months after final publication. This service is provided free of charge. Please note that authors may not deposit manuscripts directly to PMC or other sites without permission from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

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    Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. is a "blue" publisher (as defined by Sherpa), as we allow self-archiving of post-print (ie final draft post-refereeing) or publisher's version/PDF.

    In assigning Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. copyright, the author retains the right to deposit such a 'post-print' on their own website, or on their institution's intranet, or within the Institutional Repository of their institution or company of employment, on the following condition, and with the following acknowledgement:

    This is a copy of an article published in the [JOURNAL TITLE] © [year of publication] [copyright Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.]; [JOURNAL TITLE] is available online at: http://online.liebertpub.com.

    Authors may also deposit this version on his/her funder's or funder's designated repository at the funder's request or as a result of a legal obligation, provided it is not made publicly available until 12 months after official publication.

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    These valuable benefits are included with a one-time article processing charge (APC). APC charge varies based on journal, membership, and subsequent submissions.

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