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Published Online: 7 July 2004

Candida Transmission and Sexual Behaviors as Risks for a Repeat Episode of Candida Vulvovaginitis

Publication: Journal of Women's Health
Volume 12, Issue Number 10

Abstract

Objective: To assess associations between female and male factors and the risk of recurring Candida vulvovaginitis.
Methods: A prospective cohort study of 148 women with Candida vulvovaginitis and 78 of their male sexual partners was conducted at two primary care practices in the Ann Arbor, Michigan, area.
Results: Thirty-three of 148 women developed at least one further episode of Candida albicans vulvovaginitis within 1 year of follow-up. Cultures of Candida species from various sites of the woman (tongue, feces, vulva, and vagina) and from her partner (tongue, feces, urine, and semen) did not predict recurrences. Female factors associated with recurrence included recent masturbating with saliva (hazard ratio 2.66 [95% CI 1.17-6.06]) or cunnilingus (hazard ratio 2.94 [95% CI 1.12-7.68]) and ingestion of two or more servings of bread per day (p ≤ 0.05). Male factors associated with recurrences in the woman included history of the male masturbating with saliva in the previous month (hazard ratio 3.68 [95% CI 1.24-10.87]) and lower age at first intercourse (hazard ratio 0.83 [95% CI 0.71-0.96]).
Conclusions: Sexual behaviors, rather than the presence of Candida species at various body locations of the male partner, are associated with recurrences of C. albicans vulvovaginitis.

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cover image Journal of Women's Health
Journal of Women's Health
Volume 12Issue Number 10December 2003
Pages: 979 - 989
PubMed: 14709186

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Published online: 7 July 2004
Published in print: December 2003

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Barbara D. Reed, MD, MSPH
Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Philip Zazove, MD
Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Carl L. Pierson, PhD
Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Daniel W. Gorenflo, PhD
Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Julie Horrocks, PhD
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

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