Research Article
No access
Published Online: 7 July 2004

Candida Transmission and Sexual Behaviors as Risks for a Repeat Episode of Candida Vulvovaginitis

Publication: Journal of Women's Health
Volume 12, Issue Number 10


Objective: To assess associations between female and male factors and the risk of recurring Candida vulvovaginitis.
Methods: A prospective cohort study of 148 women with Candida vulvovaginitis and 78 of their male sexual partners was conducted at two primary care practices in the Ann Arbor, Michigan, area.
Results: Thirty-three of 148 women developed at least one further episode of Candida albicans vulvovaginitis within 1 year of follow-up. Cultures of Candida species from various sites of the woman (tongue, feces, vulva, and vagina) and from her partner (tongue, feces, urine, and semen) did not predict recurrences. Female factors associated with recurrence included recent masturbating with saliva (hazard ratio 2.66 [95% CI 1.17-6.06]) or cunnilingus (hazard ratio 2.94 [95% CI 1.12-7.68]) and ingestion of two or more servings of bread per day (p ≤ 0.05). Male factors associated with recurrences in the woman included history of the male masturbating with saliva in the previous month (hazard ratio 3.68 [95% CI 1.24-10.87]) and lower age at first intercourse (hazard ratio 0.83 [95% CI 0.71-0.96]).
Conclusions: Sexual behaviors, rather than the presence of Candida species at various body locations of the male partner, are associated with recurrences of C. albicans vulvovaginitis.

Get full access to this article

View all available purchase options and get full access to this article.

Information & Authors


Published In

cover image Journal of Women's Health
Journal of Women's Health
Volume 12Issue Number 10December 2003
Pages: 979 - 989
PubMed: 14709186


Published online: 7 July 2004
Published in print: December 2003


Request permissions for this article.




Barbara D. Reed, MD, MSPH
Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Philip Zazove, MD
Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Carl L. Pierson, PhD
Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Daniel W. Gorenflo, PhD
Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Julie Horrocks, PhD
Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada

Metrics & Citations



Export citation

Select the format you want to export the citations of this publication.

View Options

Get Access

Access content

To read the fulltext, please use one of the options below to sign in or purchase access.

Society Access

If you are a member of a society that has access to this content please log in via your society website and then return to this publication.

Restore your content access

Enter your email address to restore your content access:

Note: This functionality works only for purchases done as a guest. If you already have an account, log in to access the content to which you are entitled.

View options


View PDF/ePub







Copy the content Link

Share on social media

Back to Top