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Published Online: 1 September 2016

Effects of a Yoga Program on Menstrual Cramps and Menstrual Distress in Undergraduate Students with Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Single-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

Publication: The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Volume 22, Issue Number 9


Objectives: To investigate the effects of a yoga program on menstrual cramps and menstrual distress in undergraduate students with primary dysmenorrhea.
Design: Single-blind, randomized controlled trial.
Participants: 40 randomly selected undergraduate nursing students, with 20 each assigned to an exercise or a control group.
Intervention: The participants engaged in a yoga program for 60 minutes once a week for 12 weeks. The program consisted of physical exercise combined with relaxation and meditation.
Outcome measures: Menstrual cramps and menstrual distress levels were measured by using the Visual Analogue Scale for Pain and the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire, respectively. Data were analyzed by using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk normality tests, t-test, chi-square test, logistic regression analysis, and multivariate analysis of variance (SPSS program).
Results: Menstrual pain intensity (group difference, −0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], −1.47 to −0.42; p = 0.001) and menstrual distress (group difference, −1.13; 95% CI, −1.43 to −0.82; p < 0.0001) scores decreased significantly in the experimental group compared with the control group.
Conclusions: These findings indicate that yoga interventions may reduce menstrual cramps and menstrual distress in female undergraduate students with primary dysmenorrhea.

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Published In

cover image The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Volume 22Issue Number 9September 2016
Pages: 732 - 738
PubMed: 27315239


Published in print: September 2016
Published online: 1 September 2016
Published ahead of print: 17 June 2016


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Nam-Young Yang
Department of Nursing, Kongyang University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.
Sang-Dol Kim
Department of Nursing, College of Health Science, Kangwon National University, Samcheok-si, Republic of Korea.


Address correspondence to:Sang-Dol Kim, RN, PhDDepartment of NursingCollege of Health Science Kangwon National University346 Hwangjo-gil, Dogye-eupSamcheok-si, Gangwon-do 245-907Republic of KoreaE-mail: [email protected]

Author Disclosure Statement

No competing financial interests exist.

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