Research Article
No access
Published Online: 1 January 2018

The Effect of Reflexology on the Pain-Insomnia-Fatigue Disturbance Cluster of Breast Cancer Patients During Adjuvant Radiation Therapy

Publication: The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Volume 24, Issue Number 1

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the effects of reflexology treatment on quality of life, sleep disturbances, and fatigue in breast cancer patients during radiation therapy.
Methods/Subjects: A total of 72 women with breast cancer (stages 1–3) scheduled for radiation therapy were recruited.
Design: Women were allocated upon their preference either to the group receiving reflexology treatments once a week concurrently with radiotherapy and continued for 10 weeks or to the control group (usual care).
Outcome measures: The Lee Fatigue Scale, General Sleep Disturbance Scale, and Multidimensional Quality of Life Scale Cancer were completed by each patient in both arms at the beginning of the radiation treatment, after 5 weeks, and after 10 weeks of reflexology treatment.
Results: The final analysis included 58 women. The reflexology treated group demonstrated statistically significant lower levels of fatigue after 5 weeks of radiation therapy (p < 0.001), compared to the control group. It was also detected that although the quality of life in the control group deteriorated after 5 and 10 weeks of radiation therapy (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively), it was preserved in the reflexology group, which also demonstrated a significant improvement in the quality of sleep after 10 weeks of radiation treatment (p < 0.05). Similar patterns were obtained in the assessment of the pain levels experienced by the patients.
Conclusions: The results of the present study indicate that reflexology may have a positive effect on fatigue, quality of sleep, pain, and quality of life in breast cancer patients during radiation therapy. Reflexology prevented the decline in quality of life and significantly ameliorated the fatigue and quality of sleep of these patients. An encouraging trend was also noted in amelioration of pain levels.

Get full access to this article

View all available purchase options and get full access to this article.

References

1.
Alcântara-Silva TR, Freitas-Junior R, Freitas NM, et al. Fatigue related to radiotherapy for breast and/or gynaecological cancer: A systematic review. J Clin Nurs 2013;22:2679–2686.
2.
Kapoor A, Singhal MK, Bagri PK, et al. Cancer related fatigue: A ubiquitous problem yet so under reported, under recognized and under treated. South Asian J Cancer 2015;4:21–23.
3.
Garrett K, Dhruva A, Koetters T, et al. Differences in sleep disturbance and fatigue between patients with breast and prostate cancer at the initiation of radiation therapy. J Pain Symptom Manage 2011;42:239–250.
4.
Matthews EE, Schmiege SJ, Cook PF, et al. Breast cancer and symptom clusters during radiotherapy. Cancer Nurs 2012;35:E1–E11.
5.
Gupta D, Lis CG, Grutsch JF. The relationship between cancer-related fatigue and patient satisfaction with quality of life in cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage 2007;34:40–47.
6.
Pud D, Ben-Ami S, Cooper BA, et al. The symptom experience of oncology outpatients has a different impact on Quality-of-Life outcomes. J Pain Symptom Manage 2008;35:162–170.
7.
Yennurajalingam S, Bruera E. Review of clinical trials of pharmacological interventions for cancer-related fatigue: Focus on psychostimulants and steroids. Cancer J 2014;20:319–324.
8.
Cramp F, Byron-Daniel J. Exercise for the management of cancer-related fatigue in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;11:CD006145.
9.
Mishra SI, Scherer RW, Snyder C, et al. Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for people with cancer during active treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012;8:CD008465.
10.
Montgomery GH, Kangas M, David D, et al. Fatigue during breast cancer radiotherapy: An initial randomized study of cognitive-behavioral therapy plus hypnosis. Health Psychol 2009;28:317–322.
11.
Finnegan-John J, Molassiotis A, Richardson A, et al. A systematic review of complementary and alternative medicine interventions for the management of cancer-related fatigue. Integr Cancer Ther 2013;12:276–290.
12.
Paltiel O, Avitzour M, Peretz T, et al. Determinants of the use of complementary therapies by patients with cancer. J Clin Oncol 2001;19:2439–2448.
13.
Pan YQ, Yang KH, Wang YL, et al. Massage interventions and treatment-related side effects of breast cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Clin Oncol 2014;19:829–841.
14.
Moran MS, Ma S, Jagsi R, et al. A prospective, multicenter study of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) utilization during definitive radiation for breast cancer. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys 2013;85:40–46.
15.
Pedersen CG, Christensen S, Jensen AB, et al. Prevalence, socio-demographic and clinical predictors of post-diagnostic utilization of different types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide cohort of Danish women treated for primary breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 2009;45:3172–3178.
16.
Lee KA, Hicks G, Nino-Murcia G, et al. Validity and reliability of a scale to assess fatigue. Psychiatry Res 1991;36:291–298.
17.
Gay CL, Lee K A, Lee SY, et al. Sleep patterns and fatigue in new mothers and fathers. Biol Res Nurs 2004;5:311–318.
18.
Lee KA, DeJoseph JF. Sleep disturbances, vitality, and fatigue among a select group of employed childbearing women. Birth 1992;19:208–213.
19.
Carpenter JS, Andrykowski MA, Wilson J, et al. Psychometrics for two short forms of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Issues Ment Health Nurs 1998;19:481–494.
20.
Padilla GV, Mishel MH, Grant MM. Uncertainty, appraisal and quality of life. Qual Life Res 1992;1:155–165.
21.
Sharp DM, Walker MB, Chaturvedi A, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of the psychological effects of reflexology in early breast cancer. Eur J Cancer 2010;46:312–322.
22.
Kwekkeboom KL, Cherwin CH, Lee JW, Wanta B. Mind-body treatments for the pain-fatigue-sleep disturbance symptom cluster in persons with cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage 2010;39:126–138.
23.
Lee SH, Kim JY, Yeo S, et al. Meta-analysis of massage therapy on cancer pain. Integr Cancer Ther 2015;14:297–304.
24.
Molassiotis A, Bardy J, Finnegan-John J, et al. Acupuncture for cancer-related fatigue in patients with breast cancer: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 2012;30:4470–4476.
25.
Bower JE, Garet D, Sternlieb B, et al. Yoga for persistent fatigue in breast cancer survivors: A randomized controlled trial. Cancer 2012;118:3766–3775.
26.
Chandwani KD, Perkins G, Nagendra HR, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of yoga in women with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:1058–1065.
27.
Kutner JS, Smith MC, Corbin L, et al. Massage therapy versus simple touch to improve pain and mood in patients with advanced cancer: A randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2008;149:369–379.
28.
Bower JE. Cancer related fatigue-mechanisms, risk factors and treatments. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 2014;11:597–609.
29.
Bower JE, Ganz PA, Tao ML, et al. Inflammatory biomarkers and fatigue during radiation therapy for breast and prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2009;15:5534–5540.
30.
De Sanctis V, Agolli L, Visco V, et al. Cytokines, fatigue, and cutaneous erythema in early stage breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant radiation therapy. Biomed Res Int 2014;2014:523568.
31.
Yu JS, Zeng BY, Hsieh CL. Acupuncture stimulation and neuroendocrine regulation. Int Rev Neurobiol 2013;111:125–140.
32.
Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Bennett JM, Andridge R, et al. Yoga's impact on inflammation, mood, and fatigue in breast cancer survivors: A randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol 2014;32:1040–1049.
33.
Bower JE, Greendale G, Crosswell AD, et al. Yoga reduces inflammatory signaling in fatigued breast cancer survivors: A randomized controlled trial. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2014;43:20–29.
34.
Crane JD, Ogborn DI, Cupido C, et al. Massage therapy attenuates inflammatory signaling after exercise-induced muscle damage. Sci Transl Med 2012;4:119ra13.
35.
Siev-Ner I, Gamus D, Lerner-Geva L, Achiron A. Reflexology treatment relieves symptoms of multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled study. Mult Scler 2003;9:356–361.

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

cover image The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
Volume 24Issue Number 1January 2018
Pages: 62 - 68
PubMed: 28440664

History

Published in print: January 2018
Published online: 1 January 2018
Published ahead of print: 25 April 2017

Permissions

Request permissions for this article.

Topics

Authors

Affiliations

Ricardo Tarrasch, PhD
The Jaime and Joan Constantiner School of Education, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
Narin N. Carmel-Neiderman, MD
Complementary and Integrative Medicine Service, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat-Gan, Israel.
Sarah Ben-Ami, MSc
Oncology Department, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat-Gan, Israel.
Bella Kaufman, MD
Oncology Department, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat-Gan, Israel.
Raphi Pfeffer, MD
Radiation Oncology Department, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat-Gan, Israel.
Merav Ben-David, MD
Radiation Oncology Department, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat-Gan, Israel.
Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
Dorit Gamus, MD, PhD
Complementary and Integrative Medicine Service, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat-Gan, Israel.

Notes

This study was presented at: The International Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health (ICIMH), Las Vegas, Nevada, May 17–20, 2016.
Address correspondence to:Dorit Gamus, MD, PhDComplementary and Integrative Medicine ServiceSheba Medical CenterRamat-Gan 52621Israel
E-mail: [email protected]

Author Disclosure Statement

No competing financial interests exist.

Metrics & Citations

Metrics

Citations

Export citation

Select the format you want to export the citations of this publication.

View Options

Get Access

Access content

To read the fulltext, please use one of the options below to sign in or purchase access.

Society Access

If you are a member of a society that has access to this content please log in via your society website and then return to this publication.

Restore your content access

Enter your email address to restore your content access:

Note: This functionality works only for purchases done as a guest. If you already have an account, log in to access the content to which you are entitled.

View options

PDF/EPUB

View PDF/ePub

Full Text

View Full Text

Media

Figures

Other

Tables

Share

Share

Copy the content Link

Share on social media

Back to Top