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Published Online: 25 August 2010

Short Communication: Characterization of Drug-Resistance Mutations in HIV Type 1 Isolates from Drug-Naive and ARV-Treated Patients in Bulgaria

Publication: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Volume 24, Issue Number 9

Abstract

Little information is available about the prevalence of resistance mutations to reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) inhibitors of HIV-1, after the introduction of antiretroviral treatment in Bulgaria. To fill this gap, we analyzed 80 plasma samples from HIV-1-infected Bulgarian patients, 22 naive at antiretroviral treatment (ARV) and 58 ARV experienced. The subtypes B and A resulted in the two most prevalent (41 patients and 18 patients, respectively). The proportion of subtype B among naive and treated patients was similar in each group (57% vs. 47%, p = 0.62), while a major proportion of subtypes A was present in drug-naive patients rather than in treated patients [8/22 (36.4%) vs. 10/58 (17.2%), p = 0.08]. Two (9.1%) naive patients and 40 (70.1%) drug-experienced patients had viruses carrying at least one mutation conferring resistance to ARV drugs. Of 57 patients having experience with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), 32 (56.1%) had NRTI resistance mutations; 8/14 (57.2%) patients having experience with non-NRTI (NNRTI) had viruses carrying NNRTI resistance mutations; and 21/46 (45.7%) patients having experience with protease inhibitors (PI) had PI resistance mutations. The commonest resistance mutations resulted in the NRTI mutation M184V (42.1%) and the PI mutation L90M (24.1%). In conclusion, due to the detection of the substantial transmission of resistant variants to newly infected individuals, continuous surveillance is required, since greater access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) will be expected in Bulgaria. Furthermore, surveillance of PR and RT sequences is also convenient to monitor the introduction of nonsubtype B HIV-1 strains in Bulgaria.

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cover image AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Volume 24Issue Number 9September 2008
Pages: 1133 - 1138
PubMed: 18788909

History

Published online: 25 August 2010
Published in print: September 2008

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    Authors

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    Maria Mercedes Santoro
    *
    Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.
    Massimo Ciccozzi*
    Department of Infectious Parasite and Immuno-Mediate Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.
    Claudia Alteri
    Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.
    Stefania Montieri
    Department of Infectious Parasite and Immuno-Mediate Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.
    Ivailo Alexiev
    National HIV Confirmatory Laboratory, National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Iordanka Dimova
    National HIV Confirmatory Laboratory, National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein
    Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.
    Danail Beshkov
    National HIV Confirmatory Laboratory, National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Giovanni Rezza
    Department of Infectious Parasite and Immuno-Mediate Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.
    Carlo Federico Perno
    Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

    Notes

    Address reprint requests to:Maria Mercedes SantoroDepartment of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical SciencesUniversity of Rome“Tor Vergata”Via Montpellier 100133 Rome,Italy
    E-mail: [email protected]

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