Research Article
No access
Published Online: 10 March 2011

Determination of Mean Recency Period for Estimation of HIV Type 1 Incidence with the BED-Capture EIA in Persons Infected with Diverse Subtypes

Publication: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Volume 27, Issue Number 3

Abstract

The IgG capture BED enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) was developed to detect recent HIV-1 infection for the estimation of HIV-1 incidence from cross-sectional specimens. The mean time interval between seroconversion and reaching a specified assay cutoff value [referred to here as the mean recency period (ω)], an important parameter for incidence estimation, is determined for some HIV-1 subtypes, but testing in more cohorts and new statistical methods suggest the need for a revised estimation of ω in different subtypes. A total of 2927 longitudinal specimens from 756 persons with incident HIV infections who had been enrolled in 17 cohort studies was tested by the BED-CEIA. The ω was determined using two statistical approaches: (1) linear mixed effects regression (ω1) and (2) a nonparametric survival method (ω2). Recency periods varied among individuals and by population. At an OD-n cutoff of 0.8, ω1 was 176 days (95% CL 164–188 days) whereas ω2 was 162 days (95% CL 152–172 days) when using a comparable subset of specimens (13 cohorts). When method 2 was applied to all available data (17 cohorts), ω2 ranged from 127 days (Thai AE) to 236 days (subtypes AG, AD) with an overall ω2 of 197 days (95% CL 173–220). About 70% of individuals reached a threshold OD-n of 0.8 by 197 days (mean ω) and 95% of people reached 0.8 OD-n by 480 days. The determination of ω with more data and new methodology suggests that ω of the BED-CEIA varies between different subtypes and/or populations. These estimates for ω may affect incidence estimates in various studies.

Get full access to this article

View all available purchase options and get full access to this article.

References

1.
Janssen RSSatten GAStramer SL et al. New testing strategy to detect early HIV-1 infection for use in incidence estimates and for clinical and prevention purposesJAMA199828042-48[Erratum appears in JAMA 1999;281(20):1893.] 1. Janssen RS, Satten GA, Stramer SL, et al.: New testing strategy to detect early HIV-1 infection for use in incidence estimates and for clinical and prevention purposes. JAMA 1998;280:42–48. [Erratum appears in JAMA 1999;281(20):1893.]
2.
Parekh BSHu DJVanichseni S et al. Evaluation of a sensitive/less-sensitive testing algorithm using the 3A11-LS assay for detecting recent HIV seroconversion, among individuals with HIV-1 subtype B or E infection in ThailandAIDS Res Hum Retroviruses200117453-458. 2. Parekh BS, Hu DJ, Vanichseni S, et al.: Evaluation of a sensitive/less-sensitive testing algorithm using the 3A11-LS assay for detecting recent HIV seroconversion, among individuals with HIV-1 subtype B or E infection in Thailand. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2001;17:453–458.
3.
Parekh BSPau CPKennedy MSDobbs TLMcDougal JS. Assessment of antibody assays for identifying and distinguishing recent from long-term HIV type 1 infectionAIDS Res Hum Retroviruses200117137-146. 3. Parekh BS, Pau CP, Kennedy MS, Dobbs TL, and McDougal JS: Assessment of antibody assays for identifying and distinguishing recent from long-term HIV type 1 infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2001;17:137–146.
4.
Parekh BSKennedy MSDobbs T et al. Quantitative detection of increasing HIV type 1 antibodies after seroconversion: A simple assay for detecting recent HIV infection and estimating incidenceAIDS Res Hum Retroviruses200218295-307. 4. Parekh BS, Kennedy MS, Dobbs T, et al.: Quantitative detection of increasing HIV type 1 antibodies after seroconversion: A simple assay for detecting recent HIV infection and estimating incidence. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2002;18:295–307.
5.
Suligoi BGalli CMassi M et al. Precision and accuracy of a procedure for detecting recent human immunodeficiency virus infections by calculating the antibody avidity index by an automated immunoassay-based methodJ Clin Microbiol2002404015-4020. 5. Suligoi B, Galli C, Massi M, et al.: Precision and accuracy of a procedure for detecting recent human immunodeficiency virus infections by calculating the antibody avidity index by an automated immunoassay-based method. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40:4015–4020.
6.
Constantine NTSill AMJack N et al. Improved classification of recent HIV-1 infection by employing a two-stage sensitive/less-sensitive test strategyJ Acquir Immune Defic Syndr20033294-103. 6. Constantine NT, Sill AM, Jack N, et al.: Improved classification of recent HIV-1 infection by employing a two-stage sensitive/less-sensitive test strategy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2003;32:94–103.
7.
Jenner JGrazioplene MKazianis APhinney KWerner B. Modification of a commercial HIV-1 enzyme immunoassay for identification of recent HIV-1 infections: Use of differential antibody avidity10th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunsitic InfectionsBoston, MA2003Abstract #653. 7. Jenner J, Grazioplene M, Kazianis A, Phinney K, and Werner B: Modification of a commercial HIV-1 enzyme immunoassay for identification of recent HIV-1 infections: Use of differential antibody avidity. In: 10th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunsitic Infections, Boston, MA, 2003. Abstract #653.
8.
Rawal BDDegula ALebedeva L et al. Development of a new less-sensitive enzyme immunoassay for detection of early HIV-1 infectionJ Acquir Immune Defic Syndr200333349-355. 8. Rawal BD, Degula A, Lebedeva L, et al.: Development of a new less-sensitive enzyme immunoassay for detection of early HIV-1 infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2003;33:349–355.
9.
Wilson KMJohnson EICroom HA et al. Incidence immunoassay for distinguishing recent from established HIV-1 infection in therapy-naive populationsAIDS2004182253-2259. 9. Wilson KM, Johnson EI, Croom HA, et al.: Incidence immunoassay for distinguishing recent from established HIV-1 infection in therapy-naive populations. AIDS 2004;18:2253–2259.
10.
Barin FMeyer LLancar R et al. Development and validation of an immunoassay for identification of recent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infections and its use on dried serum spotsJ Clin Microbiol2005434441-4447. 10. Barin F, Meyer L, Lancar R, et al.: Development and validation of an immunoassay for identification of recent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infections and its use on dried serum spots. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43:4441–4447.
11.
McDougal JSPilcher CDParekh BS et al. Surveillance for HIV-1 incidence using tests for recent infection in resource-constrained countriesAIDS200519Suppl 2S25-30. 11. McDougal JS, Pilcher CD, Parekh BS, et al.: Surveillance for HIV-1 incidence using tests for recent infection in resource-constrained countries. AIDS 2005;19(Suppl 2):S25–30.
12.
Parekh BSMcDougal JS. Application of laboratory methods for estimation of HIV-1 incidenceIndian J Med Res2005121510-518. 12. Parekh BS and McDougal JS: Application of laboratory methods for estimation of HIV-1 incidence. Indian J Med Res 2005;121:510–518.
13.
Soroka SDGranade TCCandal DParekh BS. Modification of rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody assay protocols for detecting recent HIV seroconversionClin Diagn Lab Immunol200512918-921. 13. Soroka SD, Granade TC, Candal D, and Parekh BS: Modification of rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody assay protocols for detecting recent HIV seroconversion. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005;12:918–921.
14.
Rutherford GWSchwarcz SKMcFarland W. Surveillance for incident HIV infection: New technology and new opportunitiesJ Acquir Immune Defic Syndr200025Suppl 2S115-119. 14. Rutherford GW, Schwarcz SK, and McFarland W: Surveillance for incident HIV infection: New technology and new opportunities. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2000;25(Suppl 2):S115–119.
15.
Gupta SBGill ONGraham CGrant ADRogers PAMurphy G. What a test for recent infection might reveal about HIV incidence in England and WalesAIDS2000142597-2601. 15. Gupta SB, Gill ON, Graham C, Grant AD, Rogers PA, and Murphy G: What a test for recent infection might reveal about HIV incidence in England and Wales. AIDS 2000;14:2597–2601.
16.
McFarland WBusch MPKellogg TA et al. Detection of early HIV infection and estimation of incidence using a sensitive/less-sensitive enzyme immunoassay testing strategy at anonymous counseling and testing sites in San FranciscoJ Acquir Immune Defic Syndr199922484-489. 16. McFarland W, Busch MP, Kellogg TA, et al.: Detection of early HIV infection and estimation of incidence using a sensitive/less-sensitive enzyme immunoassay testing strategy at anonymous counseling and testing sites in San Francisco. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1999;22:484–489.
17.
http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/HIV/mainpage.html. 17. http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/HIV/mainpage.html.
18.
Celum CDonnell DBuchbinder SMayer KDouglas JKoblin BFlores JMarmor MSheppard HW. HIV seroconverters in HIVNET (HIV network for prevention trials): Natural history, STDs in early HIV infection4th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic InfectionWashington, DC1997155. 18. Celum C, Donnell D, Buchbinder S, Mayer K, Douglas J, Koblin B, Flores J, Marmor M, and Sheppard HW: HIV seroconverters in HIVNET (HIV network for prevention trials): Natural history and STDs in early HIV infection In: 4th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infection, Washington, DC, 1997, p. 155.
19.
Pitisuttithum PGilbert PGurwith M et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trial of a bivalent recombinant glycoprotein 120 HIV-1 vaccine among injection drug users in Bangkok, ThailandJ Infect Dis20061941661-1671. 19. Pitisuttithum P, Gilbert P, Gurwith M, et al.: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trial of a bivalent recombinant glycoprotein 120 HIV-1 vaccine among injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand. J Infect Dis 2006;194:1661–1671.
20.
The rgp120 HIV Vaccine Study Group: Placebo-controlled phase 3 trial of a recombinant glycoprotein 120 vaccine to prevent HIV-1 infectionJ Infect Dis2005191654-665. 20. The rgp120 HIV Vaccine Study Group: Placebo-controlled phase 3 trial of a recombinant glycoprotein 120 vaccine to prevent HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis 2005;191:654–665.
21.
Polk BFox RBrookmeyer RKanchanaraksa SKaslow RVisscher BRinaldo CPhair J. Predictors of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome developing in a cohort of seropositive homosexual menN Engl J Med198731661-66. 21. Polk B, Fox R, Brookmeyer R, Kanchanaraksa S, Kaslow R, Visscher B, and Rinaldo C, Phair J: Predictors of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome developing in a cohort of seropositive homosexual men. N Engl J Med 1987;316:61–66.
22.
van Loggerenberg FMlisana KWilliamson C et al. Establishing a cohort at high risk of HIV infection in South Africa: Challenges and experiences of the CAPRISA 002 acute infection studyPLoS ONE [Electronic Resource]20083e1954. 22. van Loggerenberg F, Mlisana K, Williamson C, et al.: Establishing a cohort at high risk of HIV infection in South Africa: Challenges and experiences of the CAPRISA 002 acute infection study. PLoS ONE [Electronic Resource] 2008;3:e1954.
23.
Purcell DWMizuno YMetsch LR et al. Unprotected sexual behavior among heterosexual HIV-positive injection drug using men: Associations by partner type and partner serostatusJ Urban Health200683656-668. 23. Purcell DW, Mizuno Y, Metsch LR, et al.: Unprotected sexual behavior among heterosexual HIV-positive injection drug using men: Associations by partner type and partner serostatus. J Urban Health 2006;83:656–668.
24.
Hu DJVanichseni SMastro TD et al. Viral load differences in early infection with two HIV-1 subtypesAIDS200115683-691. 24. Hu DJ, Vanichseni S, Mastro TD, et al.: Viral load differences in early infection with two HIV-1 subtypes. AIDS 2001;15:683–691.
25.
Noah KLaeyendecker ORobb M et al. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype on disease progression in persons from Rakai, Uganda, with incident HIV-1 infectionJ Infect Dis2008197707-713. 25. Noah K, Laeyendecker O, Robb M, et al.: Effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype on disease progression in persons from Rakai, Uganda, with incident HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis 2008;197:707–713.
26.
Ludo LBaeten JMKreiss JK et al. Injectable contraceptive use and genital ulcer disease during the early phase of HIV-1 infection increase plasma virus load in womenJ Infect Dis2004189303-311. 26. Ludo L, Baeten JM, Kreiss JK, et al.: Injectable contraceptive use and genital ulcer disease during the early phase of HIV-1 infection increase plasma virus load in women. J Infect Dis 2004;189:303–311.
27.
Dobbs TKennedy SPau CPMcDougal JSParekh BS. Performance characteristics of the immunoglobulin G-capture BED-enzyme immunoassay, an assay to detect recent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversionJ Clin Microbiol2004422623-2628. 27. Dobbs T, Kennedy S, Pau CP, McDougal JS, and Parekh BS: Performance characteristics of the immunoglobulin G-capture BED-enzyme immunoassay, an assay to detect recent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42:2623–2628.
28.
McDougal JSParekh BSPeterson ML et al. Comparison of HIV type 1 incidence observed during longitudinal follow-up with incidence estimated by cross-sectional analysis using the BED capture enzyme immunoassayAIDS Res Hum Retroviruses200622945-952. 28. McDougal JS, Parekh BS, Peterson ML, et al.: Comparison of HIV type 1 incidence observed during longitudinal follow-up with incidence estimated by cross-sectional analysis using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2006;22:945–952.
29.
Hargrove JWHumphrey JHMutasa K et al. Improved HIV-1 incidence estimates using the BED capture enzyme immunoassayAIDS200822511-518. 29. Hargrove JW, Humphrey JH, Mutasa K, et al.: Improved HIV-1 incidence estimates using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay. AIDS 2008;22:511–518.
30.
Verbeke GMolenberghs GLinear Mixed Models for Longitudinal DataSpringerNew York2000. 30. Verbeke G and Molenberghs G: Linear Mixed Models for Longitudinal Data. Springer, New York, 2000.
31.
Efron BTibshirani RAn Introduction to the BootstrapChapman & Hall/CRCNew York1993. 31. Efron B and Tibshirani R: An Introduction to the Bootstrap. Chapman & Hall/CRC, New York, 1993.
32.
Kalbfleisch JDPrentice RLThe Statistical Analysis of Failure Time DataJohn Wiley & Sons, Inc.New York1980. 32. Kalbfleisch JD and Prentice RL: The Statistical Analysis of Failure Time Data. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1980.
33.
Schenker NTaylor JMG. Partially parametric techniques for multiple imputationComput Statist Data Anal199622425-446. 33. Schenker N and Taylor JMG: Partially parametric techniques for multiple imputation. Comput Statist Data Anal 1996;22:425–446.
34.
Karita EPrice MHunter E et al. Investigating the utility of the HIV-1 BED capture enzyme immunoassay using cross-sectional and longitudinal seroconverter specimens from AfricaAIDS200721403-408. 34. Karita E, Price M, Hunter E, et al.: Investigating the utility of the HIV-1 BED capture enzyme immunoassay using cross-sectional and longitudinal seroconverter specimens from Africa. AIDS 2007;21:403–408.
35.
Hayashida TGatanaga HTanuma JOka S. Effects of low HIV type 1 load and antiretroviral treatment on IgG-capture BED-enzyme immunoassayAIDS Res Hum Retroviruses200824495-498. 35. Hayashida T, Gatanaga H, Tanuma J, and Oka S: Effects of low HIV type 1 load and antiretroviral treatment on IgG-capture BED-enzyme immunoassay. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2008;24:495–498.
36.
Novitsky VWang RKebaabetswe L et al. Better control of early viral replication is associated with slower rate of elicited antiviral antibodies in the detuned enzyme immunoassay during primary HIV-1C infectionJ Acquir Immune Defic Syndr200952265-272. 36. Novitsky V, Wang R, Kebaabetswe L, et al.: Better control of early viral replication is associated with slower rate of elicited antiviral antibodies in the detuned enzyme immunoassay during primary HIV-1C infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr: 2009;52:265–272.

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

cover image AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Volume 27Issue Number 3March 2011
Pages: 265 - 273
PubMed: 20954834

History

Published online: 10 March 2011
Published in print: March 2011
Published ahead of print: 18 October 2010

Permissions

Request permissions for this article.

Topics

Authors

Affiliations

Bharat S. Parekh
Division of Global AIDS Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
Debra L. Hanson
Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333.
John Hargrove
South African Center for Epidemiologic Modeling, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
Bernard Branson
Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333.
Timothy Green
Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333.
Trudy Dobbs
Division of Global AIDS Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
Niel Constantine
University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland.
Julie Overbaugh
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington.
J. Steven McDougal
Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333.

Notes

Address correspondence to:Bharat S. ParekhInternational Laboratory Branch, Division of Global AIDSCenters for Disease Control and PreventionMailstop G19, Building 15/Room 26111600 Clifton RoadAtlanta,Georgia 30333
E-mail: [email protected]

Author Disclosure Statement

No competing financial interests exist.

Metrics & Citations

Metrics

Citations

Export citation

Select the format you want to export the citations of this publication.

View Options

Get Access

Access content

To read the fulltext, please use one of the options below to sign in or purchase access.

Society Access

If you are a member of a society that has access to this content please log in via your society website and then return to this publication.

Restore your content access

Enter your email address to restore your content access:

Note: This functionality works only for purchases done as a guest. If you already have an account, log in to access the content to which you are entitled.

View options

PDF/EPUB

View PDF/ePub

Full Text

View Full Text

Media

Figures

Other

Tables

Share

Share

Copy the content Link

Share on social media

Back to Top