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Published Online: 3 October 2019

The Search for a Signature of Life on Mars: A Biogeomorphological Approach

Publication: Astrobiology
Volume 19, Issue Number 10

Abstract

Geological evidence shows that life on Earth evolved in line with major concomitant changes in Earth surface processes and landforms. Biogeomorphological characteristics, especially those involving microorganisms, are potentially important facets of biosignatures on Mars and are generating increasing interest in astrobiology. Using Earth as an analog provides reasons to suspect that past or present life on Mars could have resulted in recognizable biogenic landforms. Here, we discuss the potential for, and limitations of, a biogeomorphological approach to identifying the subsets of landforms that are modulated or created through biological processes and thus present signatures of life on Mars. Subsets especially involving microorganisms that are potentially important facets of biosignatures on Mars are proposed: (i) weathering features, biocrusts, patinas, and varnishes; (ii) microbialites and microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS); (iii) bioaccumulations of skeletal remains; (iv) degassing landforms; (v) cryoconites; (vi) self-organized patterns; (vii) unclassified non-analog landforms. We propose a biogeomorphological frequency histogram approach to identify anomalies/modulations in landform properties. Such detection of anomalies/modulations will help track a biotic origin and lead to the development of an integrative multiproxy and multiscale approach combining morphological, structural, textural, and geochemical expertise. This perspective can help guide the choice of investigation sites for future missions and the types and scales of observations to be made by orbiters and rovers.

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Associate Editor: Norman Sleep

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cover image Astrobiology
Astrobiology
Volume 19Issue Number 10October 2019
Pages: 1279 - 1291
PubMed: 31584307

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Published online: 3 October 2019
Published in print: October 2019
Accepted: 7 May 2019
Received: 8 October 2018

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Affiliations

Dov Corenblit [email protected]
Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, GEOLAB – F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France.
José Darrozes
Université Paul Sabatier, CNRS/IRD, GET – F-31062 Toulouse, France.
Frédéric Julien
CNRS, ECOLAB, Université Paul Sabatier, CNRS, INPT, UPS, F-31062 Toulouse, France.
Thierry Otto
CNRS, ECOLAB, Université Paul Sabatier, CNRS, INPT, UPS, F-31062 Toulouse, France.
Erwan Roussel
Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, GEOLAB – F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France.
Johannes Steiger
Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, GEOLAB – F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France.
Heather Viles
School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Notes

Address correspondence to: Dov Corenblit, Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, GEOLAB, 4 rue Ledru, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France [email protected]

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