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Published Online: 16 May 2022

Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Clinical Protocol #36: The Mastitis Spectrum, Revised 2022

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Publication: Breastfeeding Medicine
Volume 17, Issue Number 5


A central goal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols for managing common medical problems that may impact breastfeeding success. These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Variations in treatment may be appropriate according to the needs of an individual patient. The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine recognizes that not all lactating individuals identify as women. Using gender-inclusive language, however, is not possible in all languages and all countries and for all readers. The position of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine ( is to interpret clinical protocols within the framework of inclusivity of all breastfeeding, chestfeeding, and human milk-feeding individuals.

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ABM protocols expire in 5 years from the date of publication. Content of this protocol is up to date at the time of publication. Evidence-based revisions are made within 5 years or sooner if there are significant changes in the evidence.
Katrina B. Mitchell, MD, FACS, lead author
Helen M. Johnson, MD
Juan Miguel Rodríguez, PhD
Anne Eglash, MD, FABM
Charlotte Scherzinger, MD
Kyle Widmer, MD
Pamela Berens, MD, FACOG, FABM
Brooke Miller, MD, CCFP
The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol Committee Members:
Elizabeth Stehel, MD, Chair
Lawrence Noble, MD, FABM, Translations Chair
Melissa C. Bartick, MD, MS, FABM
Sarah Calhoun, MD
Laura Kair, MD, MAS, FABM
Susan Lappin, MD, FABM
Ilse Larson, MD
Yvonne LeFort, MD, FABM
Nicole Marshall, MD, MCR
Katrina B. Mitchell, MD
Susan Rothenberg, MD, FABM
Tomoko Seo, MD, FABM
Gina Weissman, DMD
Nancy Wight, MD, FABM
Lori Feldman-Winter, MD, MPH
Adora Okogbule-Wonodi, MD
Michal Young, MD, FABM
Deena Zimmerman, MD, MPH
For correspondence: [email protected]

Information & Authors


Published In

cover image Breastfeeding Medicine
Breastfeeding Medicine
Volume 17Issue Number 5May 2022
Pages: 360 - 376
PubMed: 35576513


Published online: 16 May 2022
Published in print: May 2022


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Katrina B. Mitchell
Department of Breast Surgery, Ridley-Tree Cancer Center, Sansum Clinic, Santa Barbara, California, USA.
Helen M. Johnson
Department of Surgery, East Carolina University Brody School of Medicine, Greenville, North Carolina, USA.
Juan Miguel Rodríguez
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
Anne Eglash
Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Charlotte Scherzinger
Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics at Klinikum Forchheim, Forchheim, Germany.
Kyle Widmer
Department of Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, Southeast, Louisiana Veterans Health Care System, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.
Pamela Berens
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas, Houston, Texas, USA.
Brooke Miller
Department of Family Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Disclosure Statement

J.M.R. has been the PI of research projects and clinical assays funded by Puleva/Biosearch Life (Granada, Spain) or Nutricia (Utrecht, The Netherlands), involving the characterization, safety, and efficacy of probiotic strains for the mastitis target. He and his research group have never received any payment or royalty related to the commercialization of probiotic strains.

Funding Information

No funding was received for this article.

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