Case Report
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Published Online: 15 November 2023

Experience of Induced Lactation in a Transgender Woman: Analysis of Human Milk and a Suggested Protocol

Publication: Breastfeeding Medicine
Volume 18, Issue Number 11

Abstract

Background: A growing number of diverse familial structures wish to colactate their infant. For transgender and gender diverse (TGD) individuals, chestfeeding or breastfeeding may be within their goals of parenthood. There is limited evidence on how to induce lactation for a nongestational parent on gender affirming estrogen treatment.
Case Presentation: We report the case of a transgender woman who successfully underwent lactation induction following a protocol using the galactogue domperidone plus use of a breast pump. The patient had modifications to her hormone therapy with estrogen and progesterone while remaining on antiandrogen therapy with spironolactone. A description of the protocol, medications, laboratory monitoring, human milk analysis including macronutrients, oligosaccharides, and hormones is presented.
Discussion: This is the fourth case to date known in the literature of a transgender woman with successful lactation induction, and the third case to remain on antiandrogen therapy during this process. Our report is the second to demonstrate comparable macronutrients, and the first to report on human milk oligosaccharides and hormones in induced milk compared with term human milk of a gestational parent.
Conclusions: The opportunity to chestfeed or breastfeed an infant can be profound for many parents. Further research is needed to meet the needs of TGD individuals who wish to induce lactation as part of their parental goals.

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Published In

cover image Breastfeeding Medicine
Breastfeeding Medicine
Volume 18Issue Number 11November 2023
Pages: 888 - 893
PubMed: 37910800

History

Published online: 15 November 2023
Published in print: November 2023
Published ahead of print: 1 November 2023

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Authors

Affiliations

Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Lisa Stellwagen
University of California Health Milk Bank, San Diego, California, USA.
Human Milk Institute (HMI), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
Sydney McCune
Human Milk Institute (HMI), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
Larsson-Rosenquist Foundation Mother-Milk-Infant Center of Research Excellence (MOMI CORE), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
Kristija Sejane
Human Milk Institute (HMI), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
Larsson-Rosenquist Foundation Mother-Milk-Infant Center of Research Excellence (MOMI CORE), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
Human Milk Institute (HMI), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
Larsson-Rosenquist Foundation Mother-Milk-Infant Center of Research Excellence (MOMI CORE), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.
Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

Notes

Address correspondence to: Daniela Delgado, MD, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, 911 Broxton Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA [email protected]

Authors' Contributions

D.D. contributed to conceptualization and writing—original draft, methodology, and data curation. L.S., S.M., and L.B. were involved in data curation, formal analysis, and writing—review and editing. K.S. was in charge of data curation and formal analysis.

Disclosure Statement

The author was the treating physician for the patient in this case study.

Funding Information

No funding was received for this article.

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