Research Article
No access
Published Online: 1 October 2016

Enhancing Primary School Children's Knowledge of Online Safety and Risks with the CATZ Cooperative Cross-Age Teaching Intervention: Results from a Pilot Study

Publication: Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking
Volume 19, Issue Number 10

Abstract

Children are heavy users of the Internet and prior studies have shown that many of them lack a good understanding of the risks of doing so and how to avoid them. This study examined if the cross-age teaching zone (CATZ) intervention could help children acquire important knowledge of online risks and safety. It allowed older students to act as CATZ tutors to design and deliver a lesson to younger schoolmates (tutees), using content material about online risks and safety provided by adults. Students in Year 6 (mean age = 11.5 years) were randomly assigned to act as either CATZ tutors (n = 100) or age-matched controls (n = 46) and students in Year 4 (mean age = 9.5 years) acted as either CATZ tutees (n = 117) or age-matched controls (n = 28) (total N = 291). CATZ tutors, but not matched controls scored significantly higher on objective measures of knowledge of both online risks and safety, and CATZ tutees, but not matched controls did so for online safety. Effect sizes were moderate or large. CATZ was highly acceptable to participants. The results suggest that CATZ is a viable way to help school students learn about online dangers and how to avoid them.

Get full access to this article

View all available purchase options and get full access to this article.

References

1.
Ofcom. (2013) Children and parents: media use and attitudes report. http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/ research/media-literacy/october-2013/research07Oct2013.pdf (accessed Jan. 17, 2016).
2.
Pew Research Centre. (2013) Teens and technology 2013. www.pewinternet.org/files/old-media/Files/ Reports/2013/PIP_TeensandTechnology2013.pdf (accessed Jan. 17, 2016).
3.
Finkelhor D. Commentary: cause for alarm? Youth and internet risk research—a commentary on Livingstone and Smith. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2014; 55:655–658.
4.
Livingstone S. Online risk, harm and vulnerability: reflections on the evidence base for child Internet safety policy. ZER: Journal of Communication Studies 2013; 18:13–28.
5.
Livingstone S, Smith PK. Annual Research Review: Harms experienced by child users of online and mobile technologies: the nature, prevalence and management of sexual and aggressive risks in the digital age. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2014; 55:635–654.
6.
Eisenberg N, Valiente C, Eggum ND. Self-regulation and school readiness. Early Education and Development 2012; 21:681–698.
7.
EU Kids Online. (2014) EU Kids Online: findings, methods, recommendations (deliverable D1.6). http://lsedesignunit.com/EUKidsOnline/index.html?r=64 (accessed Jan. 17, 2016).
8.
Haddon L. Children's critical evaluation of parental mediation. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace 2015;9:article 2.
9.
Cranmer S, Selwyn N, Potter J. Exploring primary pupils’ experiences and understandings of ‘e-safety’. Education & Information Technologies 2009; 14:127–142.
10.
Livingstone S, Haddon L, Vincent J, et al. (2014) Net children go mobile: the UK report. www.lse.ac.uk/media@lse/research/EUKidsOnline/EU%20Kids%20III/Reports/NCGMUKReportfinal.pdf (accessed Jan. 17, 2016).
11.
Boulton MJ, Boulton RJ. Resistant to the message: are pupils unreceptive to teachers’ anti-bullying initiatives and if so why? Educational Research 2012; 38:495–489.
12.
Rigby K, Bagshaw D. Prospects of adolescent students collaborating with teachers in addressing issues of bullying and conflict in schools. Educational Psychology 2003; 23:535–546.
13.
Biddle BJ. Recent development in role theory. Annual Review of Sociology 1986; 12:67–92.
14.
Thurston A, Van de Keere K, Topping KJ, et al. Peer learning in primary school science: theoretical perspectives and implications for classroom practice. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology 2007; 5:477–496.
15.
O'Donnell AM, King A. (1999) Cognitive perspectives on peer learning. Marwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
16.
Slavin RE. Research on cooperative learning and achievement: What we know, what we need to know. Contemporary Educational Psychology 1996; 21:43–69.
17.
Topping K, Ehly S. (1998). Peer-assisted learning. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
18.
Boulton MJ. The effects of a cross-age teaching of social skills (CATZ) intervention on victims of bullying. Paper presented at the British Psychological Society Developmental Section Annual Conference, Amsterdam, 2014.
19.
Junger-Tas J, Ribeaud D, Cruyff MJ. Juvenile delinquency and gender. European Journal of Criminology 2004; 1:333–375.
20.
Baumgartner SE, Valkenburg PM, Jochen P. Unwanted online sexual solicitation and risky sexual online behavior across the lifespan. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 2010; 31:439–447.
21.
Fleming MJ, Greentree S, Cocotti-Muller D, et al. Safety in cyberspace: adolescents’ safety and exposure online. Youth and Society 2006; 38:135–154.
22.
Boulton MJ. School peer counselling for bullying services as a source of social support: an interview study with secondary school pupils. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling 2005; 33:485–494.
23.
Cowie H. Bystanding or standing by: Gender issues in coping with bullying in English schools. Aggressive Behavior 2000; 26:85–97.
24.
Witt JC, Elliott NS. (1985) Effectiveness of classroom management strategies. In Kratochwill TR, ed. Advances in school psychology (Vol. 4). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 251–288.
25.
Cowie H, Smith PK, Boulton MJ, et al. (1994) Cooperation in the multi-ethnic classroom: the impact of cooperative group work on social relationships in middle schools. London: David Fulton.
26.
Livingstone S, Davidson J, Bryce J, et al. (2012) Children's online activities, risks and safety: the UK evidence base. Report for the UK council for Child Internet Safety. www.saferinternet.org.uk/content/childnet/safterinternetcentre/downloads/Research_Highlights/UKCCIS_Report_2012.pdf (accessed Jan. 17, 2016).
27.
Vygotsky LS. 1978. Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
28.
Birte W, Reiner H, Matthis M. Effects of a brief school-based media literacy intervention on digital media use in adolescents: cluster randomized controlled trial. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 2014; 17:616–623.

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

cover image Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking
Volume 19Issue Number 10October 2016
Pages: 609 - 614

History

Published in print: October 2016
Published online: 1 October 2016

Permissions

Request permissions for this article.

Topics

    Authors

    Affiliations

    Michael J. Boulton
    Department of Psychology, University of Chester, Chester, England.
    Louise Boulton
    Department of Psychology, University of Chester, Chester, England.
    Eleonora Camerone
    Department of Psychology, University of Chester, Chester, England.
    James Down
    Department of Psychology, University of Chester, Chester, England.
    Joanna Hughes
    Department of Psychology, University of Chester, Chester, England.
    Chloe Kirkbride
    Department of Psychology, University of Chester, Chester, England.
    Rachel Kirkham
    Department of Psychology, University of Chester, Chester, England.
    Peter Macaulay
    Department of Psychology, University of Chester, Chester, England.
    Jessica Sanders
    Department of Psychology, University of Chester, Chester, England.

    Notes

    Address correspondence to:Dr. Michael J. BoultonDepartment of PsychologyUniversity of ChesterParkgate RoadChester CH1 4BJEngland
    E-mail: [email protected]

    Author Disclosure Statement

    No competing financial interests exist.

    Metrics & Citations

    Metrics

    Citations

    Export citation

    Select the format you want to export the citations of this publication.

    View Options

    Get Access

    Access content

    To read the fulltext, please use one of the options below to sign in or purchase access.

    Society Access

    If you are a member of a society that has access to this content please log in via your society website and then return to this publication.

    Restore your content access

    Enter your email address to restore your content access:

    Note: This functionality works only for purchases done as a guest. If you already have an account, log in to access the content to which you are entitled.

    View options

    PDF/EPUB

    View PDF/ePub

    Full Text

    View Full Text

    Media

    Figures

    Other

    Tables

    Share

    Share

    Copy the content Link

    Share on social media

    Back to Top