Excessive use of technology has become a worldwide problem due to its high prevalence, fast growth rate, and undesirable consequences. However, little is known about underlying psychological mechanisms that maintain excessive use of technology. We investigated the mediating role of self-esteem, novelty seeking, and persistence on the relationship between attachment dimensions and technology addiction among young adults. Data were collected from 727 young adults (females, N = 478; 66.3 percent), aged 23.44 ± 3.02 years. Participants completed self-report measures of secure and insecure attachment dimensions, personality, and temperament characteristics (i.e., self-esteem, novelty seeking, and persistence), technology addiction and frequency of technology use (i.e., own technology use, perceived use by peers and parents). The mediation model was tested through a path analysis. The effects of attachment insecurity on technology addiction were partially mediated by the levels of persistence and self-esteem, whereas the effects of attachment security on technology addiction were fully mediated. The effects remained robust even after controlling for the frequency of technology use. The model was gender and age invariant, suggesting that the mediation worked in a similar way for both men and women and across ages. Findings suggest that attachment dimensions exert not only a direct but also an indirect effect on technology addiction through self-esteem and persistence. Such findings may help to develop psychosocial interventions that are sensitive to young adults' attachment, personality, and temperament characteristics.

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Published In

cover image Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking
Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking
Volume 25Issue Number 4April 2022
Pages: 258 - 263
PubMed: 35213256


Published online: 12 April 2022
Published in print: April 2022
Published ahead of print: 24 February 2022


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Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
Department of Human and Social Sciences, University of Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy.
School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.
Valeria Chiozza
Department of Psychology of Developmental and Socialisation Processes, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
Silvia Carrara
Department of Human and Social Sciences, University of Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy.
Department of Human and Social Sciences, University of Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy.
Department of Neurology and Laboratory of Neuroscience, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy.
Department of Human and Social Sciences, University of Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy.
Department of Human and Social Sciences, University of Bergamo, Bergamo, Italy.


Address correspondence to: Chiara Remondi, Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, 00185 Roma, Italy [email protected]

Authors' Contributions

C.R. and A.B. designed the study, conducted the data analysis, and led the article preparation. A.C. and G.A.T participated in the conception and review of the statistical analysis. G.L.C. provided feedback on article drafts with a focus on theoretical implications. V.C., A.F., and S.C. assisted with measure development and article preparation. A.G., B.P., and C.Z. provided conceptual inputs at various stages of study design. All authors contributed substantively to the interpretation of the data and the findings.

Author Disclosure Statement

No competing financial interests exist.

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No funding was received for this article.

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