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Published Online: 6 March 2019

Virulence Potential, Biofilm Formation, and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Cattle Housed in a Particular Gaushala (Cattle Shelter) and Organized Farm

Publication: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Volume 16, Issue Number 3


Objectives: The occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes was studied by using cultural and serological methods in cattle housed in a particular gaushala (cattle shelter) and organized dairy farm.
Materials and Methods: A total of 1201 samples from cattle comprising blood (n = 207), milk (n = 203), vaginal swabs (n = 210), and serum (n = 207) from an organized farm (n = 210) and blood (n = 100), milk (n = 74), vaginal swabs (n = 100), and serum (n = 100) from a gaushala (n = 100) were collected and analyzed for L. monocytogenes. All samples excluding serum were analyzed for isolation and identification of L. monocytogenes, while the serum samples were screened for seropositivity. The isolates were further subjected to assess their virulence potential (in vitro and in vivo), biofilm formation ability, and antibiotic susceptibility patterns.
Results: Four L. monocytogenes strains were isolated from the cattle; three (0.48%) from the organized farm and one (0.36%) from the gaushala. On serological screening of cattle from the organized dairy farm, 16.42% were found to be positive for antibodies against listeriolysin O, while cattle from the gaushala revealed 36% seropositivity. Furthermore, on characterization of the isolates for their pathogenic potential and biofilm-forming ability, all were found to be pathogenic by both in vitro and in vivo assays and were weak to moderate biofilm formers. The minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of recovered isolates revealed resistance for ampicillin by two L. monocytogenes isolates (MIC >256 μg/mL), whereas three L. monocytogenes isolates were intermediately resistant (MIC >4 μg/mL) and one resistant against amoxicillin (MIC >8 μg/mL). However, all four isolates were susceptible to gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, and erythromycin.
Conclusions: Isolation of virulent and antibiotic-resistant strains of L. monocytogenes warrants the need for epidemiological surveillance, antimicrobial susceptibility, and implementation of control measures to combat the occurrence of L. monocytogenes infection in animals as well as humans.

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Published In

cover image Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Volume 16Issue Number 3March 2019
Pages: 214 - 220
PubMed: 30632791


Published online: 6 March 2019
Published in print: March 2019
Published ahead of print: 11 January 2019


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Sunitha Ramanjeneya
Division of Veterinary Public Health, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India.
Sudam Chandra Sahoo
Division of Veterinary Public Health, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India.
Richa Pathak
Division of Veterinary Public Health, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India.
Manesh Kumar
Division of Veterinary Public Health, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India.
Jess Vergis
Division of Veterinary Public Health, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India.
Satya Veer Singh Malik
Division of Veterinary Public Health, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India.
Sukhadeo B. Barbuddhe
ICAR-National Research Centre on Meat, Hyderabad, India.
Deepak B. Rawool [email protected]
Division of Veterinary Public Health, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India.


Address correspondence to: Deepak B. Rawool, PhD, Division of Veterinary Public Health, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243122, India [email protected]

Disclosure Statement

No competing financial interests exist.


This work was supported by grants from the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, under Grant [BT/01/CEIB/11/VI/13] to S.V.S.M and a Junior Research Fellowship to S.R. by University Grants Commission.

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