Research Article
No access
Published Online: 28 March 2009

Quinolinic Acid Production by Macrophages Stimulated with IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IFN-α

Publication: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Volume 17, Issue Number 10


Quinolinic acid (QUIN) has been associated with several inflammatory neurologic disorders, including AIDS dementia complex (ADC). Recent studies suggest that activation of macrophages with either HIV-1 or interferone (IFN-γ) can lead to QUIN production. However, the importance of other cytokines, especially those related to the macrophage and that are especially important in ADC pathogenesis, remains unclear. We, therefore, sought to determine the role of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IFN-α in the production of QUIN. Primary human macrophages were stimulated with two different concentrations of these cytokines alone, in combination with each other, and with IFN-γ. QUIN concentrations in the supernatants were then measured by mass spectrometry at 24, 48, and 72 hs. Results at 72 h showed significant increases in QUIN production in the cells stimulated with IFN-γ (10297 ± 170 nmol/L) and also in those stimulated with IFN-α (3600 ± 113 nmol/L), whereas TNF-α-stimuIated macrophages produced low levels of QUIN (1108 ±23 nmol/L). Macrophages stimulated with the cytokine combinations TNF-α and IFN-γ, IFN-α, and IFN-γ, and TNF-α and IFN-α also resulted in increases in QUIN production (11471 ± 77.6 nmol/L, 16656 ± 184 nmol/L, and 3369 ± 120.5 nmol/L, respectively). The increases in QUIN production in all of the cytokine treatments approached or exceeded in vivo concentrations of QUIN that have been shown to be neurotoxic. These data further support a role for QUIN in cytokine-mediated neuronal death in inflammatory disorders of the brain, especially ADC.

Get full access to this article

View all available purchase options and get full access to this article.

Information & Authors


Published In

cover image Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Volume 17Issue Number 10October 1997
Pages: 589 - 595
PubMed: 9355959


Published online: 28 March 2009
Published in print: October 1997


Request permissions for this article.




Metrics & Citations



Export citation

Select the format you want to export the citations of this publication.

View Options

Get Access

Access content

To read the fulltext, please use one of the options below to sign in or purchase access.

Society Access

If you are a member of a society that has access to this content please log in via your society website and then return to this publication.

Restore your content access

Enter your email address to restore your content access:

Note: This functionality works only for purchases done as a guest. If you already have an account, log in to access the content to which you are entitled.

View options


View PDF/ePub







Copy the content Link

Share on social media

Back to Top