Research Article
No access
Published Online: 3 September 2010

Pathways of Chronic Pain in Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence

Publication: Journal of Women's Health
Volume 19, Issue Number 9

Abstract

Objective: To examine the roles of lifetime abuse-related injury, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity, and depressive symptom severity in mediating the effects of severity of assaultive intimate partner violence (IPV), psychological IPV, and child abuse on chronic pain severity in women survivors of IPV.
Methods: Structural equation modeling of data from a community sample of 309 women survivors of IPV was used to test partial and full theoretical models of the relationships among the variables of interest.
Results: The full model had good fit and accounted for 40.2% of the variance in chronic pain severity. Abuse-related injury, PTSD symptom severity, and depressive symptom severity significantly mediated the relationship between child abuse severity and chronic pain severity, but only abuse-related injury significantly mediated the relationship between assaultive IPV severity and chronic pain severity. Psychological IPV severity was the only abuse variable with significant direct effects on chronic pain severity but had no significant indirect effects.
Conclusions: These findings can inform clinical care of women with chronic pain in all areas of healthcare delivery by reinforcing the importance of assessing for a history of child abuse and IPV. Moreover, they highlight the relevance of routinely assessing for abuse-related injury and PTSD and depressive symptom severity when working with women who report chronic pain.

Get full access to this article

View all available purchase options and get full access to this article.

References

1.
Tjaden PThoennes NExtent, nature and consequences of intimate partner violence: Findings from the National Violence Against Women SurveyNational Institute of Justice and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention2000. 1. Tjaden P, Thoennes N. Extent, nature and consequences of intimate partner violence: Findings from the National Violence Against Women Survey. National Institute of Justice and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2000.
2.
Campbell JJones ADienemann J et al. Intimate partner violence and physical health consequencesArch Intern Med20021621157-1163. 2. Campbell J, Jones A, Dienemann J, et al. Intimate partner violence and physical health consequences. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:1157–1163.
3.
Coker ASmith PBethea LKing MMcKeown R. Physical health consequences of physical and psychological intimate partner violenceArch Fam Med20009451-457. 3. Coker A, Smith P, Bethea L, King M, McKeown R. Physical health consequences of physical and psychological intimate partner violence. Arch Fam Med 2000;9:451–457.
4.
Kramer ALorenzon DMueller G. Prevalence of intimate partner violence and health implications for women using emergency departments and primary care clinicsWomens Health Issues20041419-29. 4. Kramer A, Lorenzon D, Mueller G. Prevalence of intimate partner violence and health implications for women using emergency departments and primary care clinics. Womens Health Issues 2004;14:19–29.
5.
Jamieson DSteege J. The association of sexual abuse with pelvic pain complaints in a primary care populationAm J Obstet Gynecol19971771408-1412. 5. Jamieson D, Steege J. The association of sexual abuse with pelvic pain complaints in a primary care population. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1997;177:1408–1412.
6.
Leserman JDrossman D. Relationship of abuse history to functional gastrointestinal disorders and symptoms: Some possible mediating factorsTrauma Violence Abuse20078331-343. 6. Leserman J, Drossman D. Relationship of abuse history to functional gastrointestinal disorders and symptoms: Some possible mediating factors. Trauma Violence Abuse 2007;8:331–343.
7.
Leserman JDrossman DZhiming LToomey TNachman G. Glogan L. Sexual and physical abuse history in gastroenterology practicePsychosom Med1996584-15. 7. Leserman J, Drossman D, Zhiming L, Toomey T, Nachman G. Glogan L. Sexual and physical abuse history in gastroenterology practice. Psychosom Med 1996;58:4–15.
8.
Walling MReiter RO'Hara MMilburn ALilly GVincent S. Abuse history and chronic pain in women: I. Prevalences of sexual and physical abuseObstet Gynecol199484193-199. 8. Walling M, Reiter R, O'Hara M, Milburn A, Lilly G, Vincent S. Abuse history and chronic pain in women: I. Prevalences of sexual and physical abuse. Obstet Gynecol 1994;84:193–199.
9.
Campbell RGreeson MBybee DRaja S. The co-occurrence of childhood sexual assault, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment: A mediation model of posttraumatic stress disorder and physical health outcomesJ Consult Clin Psychol200876194-207. 9. Campbell R, Greeson M, Bybee D, Raja S. The co-occurrence of childhood sexual assault, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment: A mediation model of posttraumatic stress disorder and physical health outcomes. J Consult Clin Psychol 2008;76:194–207.
10.
Coker ASmith PFadden MP. Intimate partner violence and disabilitiesJ Womens Health200514829-838. 10. Coker A, Smith P, Fadden MP. Intimate partner violence and disabilities. J Womens Health 2005;14:829–838.
11.
Walsh CJamieson EMacMillan HBoyle M. Child abuse and chronic pain in a community survey of womenJ Interpers Violence2007221536-1554. 11. Walsh C, Jamieson E, MacMillan H, Boyle M. Child abuse and chronic pain in a community survey of women. J Interpers Violence 2007;22:1536–1554.
12.
Woods APage GO'Campo PPugh LFord DCampbell J. The mediation effect of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms on the relationship of intimate partner violence and IFN-γ levelsAm J Community Psychol200536159-175. 12. Woods A, Page G, O'Campo P, Pugh L, Ford D, Campbell J. The mediation effect of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms on the relationship of intimate partner violence and IFN-γ levels. Am J Community Psychol 2005;36:159–175.
13.
Wuest JMerritt-Gray MFord-Gilboe MLent BVarcoe CCampbell JC. Chronic pain in women survivors of intimate partner violenceJ Pain200891049-1057. 13. Wuest J, Merritt-Gray M, Ford-Gilboe M, Lent B, Varcoe C, Campbell JC. Chronic pain in women survivors of intimate partner violence. J Pain 2008;9:1049–1057.
14.
Chapman CRTuckett RSong CW. Pain and stress in a systems perspective: Reciprocal neural, endocrine and immune interactionsJ Pain20089122-145. 14. Chapman CR, Tuckett R, Song CW. Pain and stress in a systems perspective: Reciprocal neural, endocrine and immune interactions. J Pain 2008;9:122–145.
15.
Meagher MW. Links between traumatic family violence and chronic pain: Biopsychosocial pathways and treatment implicationsKendall-Tackett KAHealth consequences of abuse in the FamilyWashington, DCAPA2005155-177. 15. Meagher MW. Links between traumatic family violence and chronic pain: Biopsychosocial pathways and treatment implications. In: Kendall-Tackett KA, ed. Health consequences of abuse in the Family. Washington, DC: APA, 2005:155–177.
16.
Schnurr PGreen B. Understanding relationships among trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and health outcomesSchnurr PGreen BTrauma and health: Physical health consequences of exposure to extreme stressWashington, DCAPA2004247-275. 16. Schnurr P, Green B. Understanding relationships among trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, and health outcomes. In: Schnurr P, Green B, eds. Trauma and health: Physical health consequences of exposure to extreme stress. Washington, DC: APA, 2004:247–275.
17.
Martelli MZaster NBender MNicholson K. Psychological, neuropsychological, and medical considerations in the assessment and management of painJ Head Trauma Rehabil20041910-28. 17. Martelli M, Zaster N, Bender M, Nicholson K. Psychological, neuropsychological, and medical considerations in the assessment and management of pain. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2004;19:10–28.
18.
Green BKimmerling R. Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder and health statusSchnurr PGreen BTrauma and health: Physical consequences of exposure to extreme stressWashington, DCAPA200413-37. 18. Green B, Kimmerling R. Trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder and health status. In: Schnurr P, Green B, eds. Trauma and health: Physical consequences of exposure to extreme stress. Washington, DC: APA, 2004:13–37.
19.
Gill JSaligan LWood SPage G. PTSD associated with an excess of inflammatory immune activitiesPerspect Psychiatr Care200945262-277. 19. Gill J, Saligan L, Wood S, Page G. PTSD associated with an excess of inflammatory immune activities. Perspect Psychiatr Care 2009;45:262–277.
20.
Otis JKeane TKerns R. An examination of the relationship between chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorderJ Rehabil Res Dev200340397-406. 20. Otis J, Keane T, Kerns R. An examination of the relationship between chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder. J Rehabil Res Dev 2003;40:397–406.
21.
Golding J. Intimate partner violence as a risk factor for mental disorders: A meta-analysisJ Fam Violence19991499-132. 21. Golding J. Intimate partner violence as a risk factor for mental disorders: A meta-analysis. J Fam Violence 1999;14:99–132.
22.
Dallem SJ. Health issues associated with violence against womenKendall-Tackett KHandbook of women, stress, and traumaNew YorkBrunner-Routledge2005159-180. 22. Dallem SJ. Health issues associated with violence against women. In: Kendall-Tackett K, ed. Handbook of women, stress, and trauma. New York: Brunner-Routledge, 2005:159–180.
23.
Kimmerling RAlvarez JPavao JKaminski ABaumrind N. Epidemiology and consequences of women's revictimizationWomen Health Issues200717101-106. 23. Kimmerling R, Alvarez J, Pavao J, Kaminski A, Baumrind N. Epidemiology and consequences of women's revictimization. Women Health Issues 2007;17:101–106.
24.
Wuest JFord-Gilboe MMerritt-Gray M et al. Abuse-related injury and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder as mechanisms of chronic pain in survivors of intimate partner violencePain Med200910739-747. 24. Wuest J, Ford-Gilboe M, Merritt-Gray M, et al. Abuse-related injury and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder as mechanisms of chronic pain in survivors of intimate partner violence. Pain Med 2009;10:739–747.
25.
Dennis MFlood AReynolds V et al. Evaluation of lifetime trauma exposure and physical health in women with posttraumatic stress disorder or major depressive disorderViolence Women200915618-627. 25. Dennis M, Flood A, Reynolds V, et al. Evaluation of lifetime trauma exposure and physical health in women with posttraumatic stress disorder or major depressive disorder. Violence Women 2009;15:618–627.
26.
Stith SMSmith DBPenn CEWarda DTritt D. Intimate partner physical abuse perpetration and victimization risk factors: A meta-analytic reviewAggress Violent Behav20041065-98. 26. Stith SM, Smith DB, Penn CE, Warda D, Tritt D. Intimate partner physical abuse perpetration and victimization risk factors: A meta-analytic review. Aggress Violent Behav 2004;10:65–98.
27.
Heim CNewport DJMletzko TMiller ANemeroff C. The link between childhood trauma and depression: Insights from HPA axis studies in humansPsychoneuroendocrinology200833693-710. 27. Heim C, Newport DJ, Mletzko T, Miller A, Nemeroff C. The link between childhood trauma and depression: Insights from HPA axis studies in humans. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2008;33:693–710.
28.
Fogarty CFredman LHeeren TLiebschulz J. Synergistic effects of child abuse and intimate partner violence on depressive symptoms in womenPrev Med200846463-469. 28. Fogarty C, Fredman L, Heeren T, Liebschulz J. Synergistic effects of child abuse and intimate partner violence on depressive symptoms in women. Prev Med 2008;46:463–469.
29.
O'Campo PKub JWoods A et al. Depression, PTSD and co-morbidity related to intimate partner violence in civilian and military womenBrief Treat Crisis Intervent2006699-110. 29. O'Campo P, Kub J, Woods A, et al. Depression, PTSD and co-morbidity related to intimate partner violence in civilian and military women. Brief Treat Crisis Intervent 2006;6:99–110.
30.
Von Korff MSimon G. The relationship between pain and depressionBr J Psychiatry1996168101-108. 30. Von Korff M, Simon G. The relationship between pain and depression. Br J Psychiatry 1996;168:101–108.
31.
Kelly U. Symptoms of PTSD and major depression in Latinas who have experienced intimate partner violenceJ Ment Health Nurs201031119-127. 31. Kelly U. Symptoms of PTSD and major depression in Latinas who have experienced intimate partner violence. J Ment Health Nurs 2010;31:119–127.
32.
Nixon RResick PNishith P. An exploration of comorbid depression among female victims of intimate partner violence with posttraumatic stress disorderJ Affect Disord200482315-320. 32. Nixon R, Resick P, Nishith P. An exploration of comorbid depression among female victims of intimate partner violence with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Affect Disord 2004;82:315–320.
33.
Sutherland CBybee DSullivan C. The long term effects of battering on women's healthWomens Health1998441-70. 33. Sutherland C, Bybee D, Sullivan C. The long term effects of battering on women's health. Womens Health 1998;4:41–70.
34.
Sutherland CBybee DSullivan C. Beyond bruises and broken bones: The joint effects of stress and injuries on battered women's healthAm J Community Psychol200230609-636. 34. Sutherland C, Bybee D, Sullivan C. Beyond bruises and broken bones: The joint effects of stress and injuries on battered women's health. Am J Community Psychol 2002;30:609–636.
35.
Breslau NDavis GCPeterson ELSchultz LR. A second look at comorbidity in victims of trauma: The posttraumatic stress disorder-major depression connectionBiol Psychiatry200049902-909. 35. Breslau N, Davis GC, Peterson EL, Schultz LR. A second look at comorbidity in victims of trauma: The posttraumatic stress disorder-major depression connection. Biol Psychiatry 2000;49:902–909.
36.
Clum GACalhoun KSKimmerling R. Associations among symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder and self-reported health in sexually assaulted womenJ Nerv Ment Dis2000188671-678. 36. Clum GA, Calhoun KS, Kimmerling R. Associations among symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder and self-reported health in sexually assaulted women. J Nerv Ment Dis 2000;188:671–678.
37.
Humphreys JCooper BMiaskowski C. Differences in depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and lifetime trauma abuse exposure in formerly abused women with mild versus moderate to severe chronic painJ Interpers Violence OnlineFirst publishedFebruary22010. 37. Humphreys J, Cooper B, Miaskowski C. Differences in depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and lifetime trauma abuse exposure in formerly abused women with mild versus moderate to severe chronic pain. J Interpers Violence Online. First published February 2, 2010, as doi:10.1177/0886260509354882.
38.
Parker BMcFarlane J. Nursing assessment of the battered pregnant womanAm J Matern Child Nurs199116161-164. 38. Parker B, McFarlane J. Nursing assessment of the battered pregnant woman. Am J Matern Child Nurs 1991;16:161–164.
39.
Ford-Gilboe MWuest JVarcoe C et al. Modeling the effects of intimate partner violence and access to resources on women's health in the early years after leaving an abusive partnerSoc Sci Med2009681021-1029. 39. Ford-Gilboe M, Wuest J, Varcoe C, et al. Modeling the effects of intimate partner violence and access to resources on women's health in the early years after leaving an abusive partner. Soc Sci Med 2009;68:1021–1029.
40.
Bernstein DFink LChildhood Trauma Questionnaire: A retrospective self-reportNew YorkPsychological Corporation1998. 40. Bernstein D, Fink L. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: A retrospective self-report. New York: Psychological Corporation, 1998.
41.
Lang AJStein MBKennedy CMFoy DW. Adult psychopathology and intimate partner violence among survivors of childhood maltreatmentJ Interpers Violence2004191102-1118. 41. Lang AJ, Stein MB, Kennedy CM, Foy DW. Adult psychopathology and intimate partner violence among survivors of childhood maltreatment. J Interpers Violence 2004;19:1102–1118.
42.
Hudson WMcIntosh S. The assessment of spouse abuse: Two quantifiable dimensionsJ Marriage Fam198143873-885. 42. Hudson W, McIntosh S. The assessment of spouse abuse: Two quantifiable dimensions. J Marriage Fam 1981;43:873–885.
43.
Campbell DCampbell JKing CParker BRyan J. The reliability and factor structure of the index of spouse abuse with African-American battered womenViolence Vict19949259-274. 43. Campbell D, Campbell J, King C, Parker B, Ryan J. The reliability and factor structure of the index of spouse abuse with African-American battered women. Violence Vict 1994;9:259–274.
44.
Davidson JDavidson Trauma Scale (DTS)Toronto, ONMultiHealth Systems1996. 44. Davidson J. Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS). Toronto, ON: MultiHealth Systems, 1996.
45.
Davidson JBook SColket J et al. Assessment of a new self-rating scale for post-traumatic stress disorderPsychol Med199727153-160. 45. Davidson J, Book S, Colket J, et al. Assessment of a new self-rating scale for post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychol Med 1997;27:153–160.
46.
Zlotnick CShea TRosen K et al. An affect-mangagement group for women with posttraumatic stress disorder and histories of child sexual abuseJ Trauma Stress199710425-436. 46. Zlotnick C, Shea T, Rosen K, et al. An affect-mangagement group for women with posttraumatic stress disorder and histories of child sexual abuse. J Trauma Stress 1997;10:425–436.
47.
Zlotnick CDavidson JShea TPearlstein T. Validation of the Davidson Trauma Scale in a sample of survivors of childhood sexual abuseJ Nerv Ment Dis1996184255-257. 47. Zlotnick C, Davidson J, Shea T, Pearlstein T. Validation of the Davidson Trauma Scale in a sample of survivors of childhood sexual abuse. J Nerv Ment Dis 1996;184:255–257.
48.
Radloff L. The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general populationAppl Psych Meas19771385-401. 48. Radloff L. The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psych Meas 1977;1:385–401.
49.
Jarvis KGordon ENovaco R. Psychological distress of children and mothers in domestic violence emergency sheltersJ Fam Violence200520390-402. 49. Jarvis K, Gordon E, Novaco R. Psychological distress of children and mothers in domestic violence emergency shelters. J Fam Violence 2005;20:390–402.
50.
Von Korff MOrmel JKeefe FDworkin S. Grading the severity of chronic painPain199250133-149. 50. Von Korff M, Ormel J, Keefe F, Dworkin S. Grading the severity of chronic pain. Pain 1992;50:133–149.
51.
Mallen CPeat GThomas ECroft P. Severe disabling chronic pain in young adults: Prevalence from a population based postal survey in North StaffordshireBMC Musculoskelet Disord200561-9www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/6/42February152005. 51. Mallen C, Peat G, Thomas E, Croft P. Severe disabling chronic pain in young adults: Prevalence from a population based postal survey in North Staffordshire. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2005;6:1–9. available at www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/6/42 accessed February 15, 2005.
52.
Plesh OCrowford PGansky S. Chronic pain in a biracial population of young womenPain200299515-523. 52. Plesh O, Crowford P, Gansky S. Chronic pain in a biracial population of young women. Pain 2002;99:515–523.
53.
Smith BPenny KPurves A et al. The Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire: Validity and reliability in postal researchPain199771141-147. 53. Smith B, Penny K, Purves A, et al. The Chronic Pain Grade questionnaire: Validity and reliability in postal research. Pain 1997;71:141–147.
54.
Schumacker RLomax RA beginner's guide to structural equation modeling2ndMahwah, NJLawrence Erlbaum Associates2004. 54. Schumacker R, Lomax R. A beginner's guide to structural equation modeling, 2nd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004.
55.
Verhaak PKerssens JDekke JSorbi MBensing J. Prevalence of chronic benign pain disorder among adults: A review of the literaturePain199877231-239. 55. Verhaak P, Kerssens J, Dekke J, Sorbi M, Bensing J. Prevalence of chronic benign pain disorder among adults: A review of the literature. Pain 1998;77:231–239.
56.
Carr DGoudas L. Acute painLancet19993532051-2058. 56. Carr D, Goudas L. Acute pain. Lancet 1999;353:2051–2058.
57.
Felitti VJAnda RFNordenberg D et al. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) StudyAm J Prev Med199814245-258. 57. Felitti VJ, Anda RF, Nordenberg D, et al. Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. Am J Prev Med 1998;14:245–258.
58.
Yehuda R. Current status of cortisol findings in post-traumatic stress disorderPsychiatr Clin North Am200225341-368. 58. Yehuda R. Current status of cortisol findings in post-traumatic stress disorder. Psychiatr Clin North Am 2002;25:341–368.
59.
Yehuda R. Advances in understanding neuroendocrine alterations in PTSD and their therapeutic implicationsAnn NY Acad Sci20061071137-166. 59. Yehuda R. Advances in understanding neuroendocrine alterations in PTSD and their therapeutic implications. Ann NY Acad Sci 2006;1071:137–166.
60.
Yehuda RHalligan SGolier JGrossman RBierer L. Effects of trauma exposure on the cortisol response to dexamethasone administration in PTSD and major depressive disorderPsychoneuroendocrinology200429389-404. 60. Yehuda R, Halligan S, Golier J, Grossman R, Bierer L. Effects of trauma exposure on the cortisol response to dexamethasone administration in PTSD and major depressive disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2004;29:389–404.
61.
Robles TGlaser RKielcolt-Glaser J. Out of balance: A new look at chronic stress, depression and immunityCurrent Dir Psychol Sci200514111-115. 61. Robles T, Glaser R, Kielcolt-Glaser J. Out of balance: A new look at chronic stress, depression and immunity. Current Dir Psychol Sci 2005;14:111–115.
62.
Meewisse MReitsma Jde Vries GGersons BOlff M. Cortisol and post-traumatic stress disorder in adults: Systematic review and meta-analysisBr J Psychiatry2007191387-392. 62. Meewisse M, Reitsma J, de Vries G, Gersons B, Olff M. Cortisol and post-traumatic stress disorder in adults: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Psychiatry 2007;191:387–392.
63.
Scott-Tilley DTilton ASandel M. Biologic correlates to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in female victims of intimate partner violence: Implications for practicePerspect Psychiatr Care20104626-36. 63. Scott-Tilley D, Tilton A, Sandel M. Biologic correlates to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in female victims of intimate partner violence: Implications for practice. Perspect Psychiatr Care 2010;46:26–36.
64.
Breslau N. The epidemiology of trauma, PTSD, and other posttrauma disordersTrauma Violence Abuse200910198-210. 64. Breslau N. The epidemiology of trauma, PTSD, and other posttrauma disorders. Trauma Violence Abuse 2009;10:198–210.
65.
Mechanic MWeaver TResick P. Mental health consequences of intimate partner abuse: A multidimensional assessment of four different forms of abuseViolence Women200814634-654. 65. Mechanic M, Weaver T, Resick P. Mental health consequences of intimate partner abuse: A multidimensional assessment of four different forms of abuse. Violence Women 2008;14:634–654.
66.
Wuest JMerritt-Gray MLent BVarcoe CConnors AFord-Gilboe M. Patterns of medication use among women survivors of intimate partner violenceCan J Public Health200798460-464. 66. Wuest J, Merritt-Gray M, Lent B, Varcoe C, Connors A, Ford-Gilboe M. Patterns of medication use among women survivors of intimate partner violence. Can J Public Health 2007;98:460–464.
67.
Gill JPage GSharps PCampbell JC. Experiences of traumatic events and associations with PTSD and depression development in urban health care-seeking womenJ Urban Health20085693-706. 67. Gill J, Page G, Sharps P, Campbell JC. Experiences of traumatic events and associations with PTSD and depression development in urban health care-seeking women. J Urban Health 2008;5:693–706.
68.
Wuest JFord-Gilboe MMerritt-Gray MBerman H. Intrusion: The central problem for family health promotion among children and single mothers after leaving an abusive partnerQual Health Res200313597-622. 68. Wuest J, Ford-Gilboe M, Merritt-Gray M, Berman H. Intrusion: The central problem for family health promotion among children and single mothers after leaving an abusive partner. Qual Health Res 2003;13:597–622.
69.
Raphael KWidom CLange G. Childhood victimization and pain in adulthood: A prospective investigationPain200292283-293. 69. Raphael K, Widom C, Lange G. Childhood victimization and pain in adulthood: A prospective investigation. Pain 2002;92:283–293.

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

cover image Journal of Women's Health
Journal of Women's Health
Volume 19Issue Number 9September 2010
Pages: 1665 - 1674
PubMed: 20718626

History

Published online: 3 September 2010
Published in print: September 2010
Published ahead of print: 18 August 2010

Permissions

Request permissions for this article.

Topics

Authors

Affiliations

Judith Wuest
University of New Brunswick, Faculty of Nursing, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada.
Marilyn Ford-Gilboe
The University of Western Ontario, Arthur Labatt Family School of Nursing, London, Ontario, Canada.
Marilyn Merritt-Gray
University of New Brunswick, Faculty of Nursing, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada.
Piotr Wilk
The University of Western Ontario, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, Ontario, Canada.
Jacquelyn C. Campbell
The Johns Hopkins University, School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland.
Barbara Lent
The University of Western Ontario, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, Ontario, Canada.
Colleen Varcoe
University of British Columbia, School of Nursing, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Victoria Smye
University of British Columbia, School of Nursing, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Notes

Address correspondence to:Judith Wuest, R.N., Ph.D.University of New Brunswick,Faculty of NursingFredericton, New Brunswick, E3B 5A3Canada
E-mail: [email protected]

Disclosure Statement

The authors have no conflicts of interest to report.

Metrics & Citations

Metrics

Citations

Export citation

Select the format you want to export the citations of this publication.

View Options

Get Access

Access content

To read the fulltext, please use one of the options below to sign in or purchase access.

Society Access

If you are a member of a society that has access to this content please log in via your society website and then return to this publication.

Restore your content access

Enter your email address to restore your content access:

Note: This functionality works only for purchases done as a guest. If you already have an account, log in to access the content to which you are entitled.

View options

PDF/EPUB

View PDF/ePub

Full Text

View Full Text

Media

Figures

Other

Tables

Share

Share

Copy the content Link

Share on social media

Back to Top