Abstract

Background: To investigate sex differences in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes in a large Illinois-based cohort.
Methods: A multicenter retrospective cohort study compared males versus females with COVID-19 infections from March 1, 2020, to June 21, 2020, in the Rush University System. We analyzed sex differences in rates of hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, vasopressor use, endotracheal intubation, and death in this cohort. A multivariable model correcting for age and sum of comorbidities was used to explore associations between sex and COVID-19-related outcomes.
Results: There were 8108 positive COVID-19 patients—4300 (53.0%) females and 3808 (47.0%) males. Males had higher rates of hospitalization (19% vs. 13%; p < 0.001), ICU transfer (8% vs. 4%; p < 0.001), vasopressor support (4% vs. 2%; p < 0.001), and endotracheal intubation (5% vs. 2%; p < 0.001). Of those who died, 92 were males and 64 were females (2% vs. 1%; p = 0.003). A multivariable model correcting for age and sum of comorbidities showed a significant association between male sex and mortality in the total cohort (odds ratio, 1.96; 95% confidence interval, 1.34–2.90; p = 0.001).
Conclusion: Male sex was independently associated with death, hospitalization, ICU admissions, and need for vasopressors or endotracheal intubation, after correction for important covariates.

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Published In

cover image Journal of Women's Health
Journal of Women's Health
Volume 30Issue Number 5May 2021
Pages: 646 - 653
PubMed: 33826864

History

Published online: 7 May 2021
Published in print: May 2021
Published ahead of print: 7 April 2021

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Joanne Michelle D. Gomez [email protected]
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Jeanne M. Du-Fay-de-Lavallaz
Department of Internal Medicine, and Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Setri Fugar
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Alexandra Sarau
Department of Internal Medicine, and Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
J. Alan Simmons
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Brian Clark
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Rupa M. Sanghani
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Neelum T. Aggarwal
Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Kim A. Williams
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Rami Doukky
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Annabelle Santos Volgman
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Notes

Address correspondence to: Joanne Michelle D. Gomez, MD, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, 1717 W. Congress Parkway, Suite 317 Kellogg, Chicago, IL 60612, USA [email protected]

Author Disclosure Statement

A.S.V.—MSD/Bayer Virtual Global Advisory Board Member, Bristol Myers Squibb Foundation Diverse Clinical Investigator Career Development Program (DCICDP) National Advisory Committee (NAC), NIH Clinical Trials, Apple, Inc., stock. N.T.A.—PCORI (research consultant); SBIR (research consultant). All other authors have no disclosures.

Funding Information

The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

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