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Published Online: 11 March 2022

Work–Life Balance and Productivity Among Academic Faculty During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Latent Class Analysis

Publication: Journal of Women's Health
Volume 31, Issue Number 3

Abstract

Background: For faculty in academic health sciences, the balance between research, education, and patient care has been impeded by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study aimed to identify personal and professional characteristics of faculty to understand the impact of the pandemic on faculty and consequent policy implications.
Methods: A 93-question survey was sent to faculty at a large urban public university and medical center. Demographic, family, and academic characteristics, work distribution and productivity before and during the pandemic, stress, and self-care data information were collected. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to identify classes of faculty sharing similar characteristics. Comparisons between latent classes were performed using analysis of variance and chi-square analyses.
Results: Of 497 respondents, 60% were women. Four latent classes of faculty emerged based on six significant indicator variables. Class 1 individuals were more likely women, assistant professors, nontenured with high work and home stress; Class 2 faculty were more likely associate professors, women, tenured, who reported high home and work stress; Class 3 faculty were more likely men, professors, tenured with moderate work, but low home stress; and Class 4 faculty were more likely adjunct professors, nontenured, and had low home and work stress. Class 2 reported significantly increased administrative and clinical duties, decreased scholarly productivity, and deferred self-care.
Conclusions: The pandemic has not affected faculty equally. Early and mid-career individuals were impacted negatively from increased workloads, stress, and decreased self-care. Academic leaders need to acknowledge these differences and be inclusive of faculty with different experiences when adjusting workplace or promotion policies.

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cover image Journal of Women's Health
Journal of Women's Health
Volume 31Issue Number 3March 2022
Pages: 321 - 330
PubMed: 34846927

History

Published online: 11 March 2022
Published in print: March 2022
Published ahead of print: 25 November 2021

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Authors

Affiliations

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Bernice Man*
Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Ruth Pobee
Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Laura E. Hirshfield
Department of Medical Education, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Barbara J. Risman
Department of Sociology, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Irina A. Buhimschi
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Notes

*
Contributed equally.
Address correspondence to: Heather M. Weinreich, MD, MPH, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, 1855 West Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA [email protected]

Authors' Contributions

P.K.-S.: conceptualization and design of the study, development of the survey, interpretation of data, writing of article, and final approval of submission. B.M.: conceptualization and design of the study, development of the survey and REDCap database, interpretation of data, writing of article, and final approval of submission. R.P.: analysis and interpretation of the data, editing of the article for important intellectual content, and final approval submission. L.E.: design of the study, development of the survey, interpretation of data and editing of the article for important intellectual content, and final approval submission.
B.J.R.: design of the study, development of the survey, interpretation of data and editing of the article for intellectual content, and final approval submission. I.A.B.: conceptualization and design of the study, analysis of the data, interpretation of findings, editing of the article for intellectual content, and final approval submission. H.M.W.: conceptualization and design of the study, preparation and submission of the IRB, development of the survey, interpretation of data, writing of article, and final approval submission.

Author Disclosure Statement

The authors have no competing interests, personal financial interests, or other competing conflicts of interest to declare.

Funding Information

This work was supported by the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC)‘s Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health (BIRCWH) grant K12HD101373 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Research on Women's Health (ORWH). The REDCap database used in this project was made possible through the UIC Clinical and Translational Sciences (CCTS) funded by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences Grant UL1TR002003.

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