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Published Online: 14 May 2013

Association of Metabolic Risk with Longitudinal Physical Activity and Fitness: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)

Publication: Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders
Volume 11, Issue Number 3

Abstract

Background: Despite established relationships between physical activity (PA) or physical fitness (fitness) and metabolic risk, the prospective association is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine whether metabolic risk in young adults is associated with 20-year PA or fitness trajectories.
Methods: Young adults were from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, baseline ages 18–30 years (n=4161). PA was determined from a self-reported questionnaire administered at baseline and at follow-up exams at years 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, and 20. Fitness (seconds) was estimated from a graded exercise treadmill test at baseline and years 7 and 20. Baseline metabolic risk was calculated using age-adjusted principal components analysis (elevated=top 10% of first factor), for each sex–race group, from mean arterial pressure, glucose, waist circumference, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Repeated measures general linear modeling estimated PA and fitness trajectories over 20 years, separately in sex–race groups, adjusting for age and smoking status.
Results: PA was significantly lower among those with elevated metabolic risk compared with normal risk at baseline and each subsequent time point (black and white men, white women; all P<0.0001; black women P=0.27). Significant and consistent results were also found with fitness trajectories for all sex–race groups (P<0.0001). Despite these lower PA and fitness levels at baseline in young adults with elevated metabolic compared with normal risk, 20-year trajectories declined at similar rates.
Conclusion: Elevated metabolic risk is associated with lower levels of PA and fitness in early adulthood, and these differences persist over 20 years.

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cover image Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders
Volume 11Issue Number 3June 2013
Pages: 195 - 204
PubMed: 23438155

History

Published in print: June 2013
Published online: 14 May 2013
Published ahead of print: 25 February 2013

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Sarah M. Camhi, PhD
Population Science, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
Exercise and Health Sciences, College of Nursing and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Boston, Massachusetts.
Peter T. Katzmarzyk, PhD
Population Science, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
Stephanie Broyles, PhD
Population Science, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
Timothy S. Church, MD, MPH, PhD
Preventive Medicine, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
Arlene L. Hankinson, MD, MS
Department of Preventive Medicine Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.
Mercedes R. Carnethon, PhD
Department of Preventive Medicine Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.
Barbara Sternfeld, PhD
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, California.
Cora E. Lewis, MD, MSPH
Division of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama.

Notes

Address correspondence to:Sarah M. Camhi, PhDExercise and Health Sciences DepartmentCollege of Nursing and Health SciencesUniversity of Massachusetts, Boston100 Morrissey BoulevardBoston, MA 02125E-mail: [email protected]

Author Disclosure Statement

No competing financial conflicts of interest exist.

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