Research Article
No access
Published Online: 23 December 2009

Treatment for Depression after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review

Publication: Journal of Neurotrauma
Volume 26, Issue Number 12

Abstract

The aim of this systematic review was to critically evaluate the evidence on interventions for depression following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and provide recommendations for clinical practice and future research. We reviewed pharmacological, other biological, psychotherapeutic, and rehabilitation interventions for depression following TBI from the following data sources: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ProQuest, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. We included studies written in English published since 1980 investigating depression and depressive symptomatology in adults with TBI; 658 articles were identified. After reviewing the abstracts, 57 articles met the inclusion criteria. In addition to studies describing interventions designed to treat depression, we included intervention studies in which depressive symptoms were reported as a secondary outcome. At the end of a full review in which two independent reviewers extracted data, 26 articles met the final criteria that included reporting data on participants with TBI, and using validated depression diagnostic or severity measures pre- and post-treatment. Three external reviewers also examined the study methods and evidence tables, adding 1 article, for a total of 27 studies. Evidence was classified based on American Academy of Neurology criteria. The largest pharmacological study enrolled 54 patients, and none of the psychotherapeutic/rehabilitation interventions prospectively targeted depression. This systematic review documents that there is a paucity of randomized controlled trials for depression following TBI. Serotonergic antidepressants and cognitive behavioral interventions appear to have the best preliminary evidence for treating depression following TBI. More research is needed to provide evidence-based treatment recommendations for depression following TBI.

Get full access to this article

View all available purchase options and get full access to this article.

References

Alderfer B.S.Arciniegas D.B.Silver J.M.2005. Treatment of depression following traumatic brain injuryJ. Head Trauma Rehabil.20544-562. Alderfer, B.S., Arciniegas, D.B., and Silver, J.M. (2005). Treatment of depression following traumatic brain injury. J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 20, 544–562.
American Psychiatric Association2000Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersAmerican Psychiatric AssociationWashington, D.C. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. American Psychiatric Association: Washington, D.C.
Anson K.Ponsford J.2006. Evaluation of a coping skills group following traumatic brain injuryBrain Injury20167-178. Anson, K., and Ponsford, J. (2006). Evaluation of a coping skills group following traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury 20, 167–178.
Ashman T.A.Cantor J.B.Gordon W.A.Spielman L.Flanagan S.Ginsberg A.Engmann C.Egan M.Ambrose F.Greenwald B.2009. A randomized controlled trial of sertraline for the treatment of depression in persons with traumatic brain injuryArch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.90733-740. Ashman, T.A., Cantor, J.B., Gordon, W.A., Spielman, L., Flanagan, S., Ginsberg, A., Engmann, C., Egan, M., Ambrose, F., and Greenwald, B. (2009). A randomized controlled trial of sertraline for the treatment of depression in persons with traumatic brain injury. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 90, 733–740.
Baker-Price L.A.Persinger M.A.1996. Weak, but complex pulsed magnetic fields may reduce depression following traumatic brain injuryPercept. Mot. Skills83491-498. Baker-Price, L.A., and Persinger, M.A. (1996). Weak, but complex pulsed magnetic fields may reduce depression following traumatic brain injury. Percept. Mot. Skills 83, 491–498.
Baker-Price L.Persinger M.A.2003. Intermittent burst-firing weak (1 microtesla) magnetic fields reduce psychometric depression in patients who sustained closed head injuries: A replication and electroencephalographic validationPercept. Mot. Skills96965-974 Baker-Price, L., and Persinger, M.A. (2003). Intermittent burst-firing weak (1 microtesla) magnetic fields reduce psychometric depression in patients who sustained closed head injuries: A replication and electroencephalographic validation. Percept. Mot. Skills 96, 965–974
Bedard M.Felteau M.Mazmanian D.Fedyk K.Klein R.Richardson J.Parkinson W.Minthorn-Biggs M.B.2003. Pilot evaluation of a mindfulness-based intervention to improve quality of life among individuals who sustained traumatic brain injuriesDisabil. Rehabil.25722-731. Bedard, M., Felteau, M., Mazmanian, D., Fedyk, K., Klein, R., Richardson, J., Parkinson, W., and Minthorn-Biggs, M.B. (2003). Pilot evaluation of a mindfulness-based intervention to improve quality of life among individuals who sustained traumatic brain injuries. Disabil. Rehabil. 25, 722–731.
Bourdon K.H.Rae D.S.Locke B.Z.Narrow W.E.Regier D.A.1992. Estimating the prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. adults from the epidemiologic catchment area surveyPublic Health Rep.107663-668. Bourdon, K.H., Rae, D.S., Locke, B.Z., Narrow, W.E., and Regier, D.A. (1992). Estimating the prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. adults from the epidemiologic catchment area survey. Public Health Rep. 107, 663–668.
Brooks N.Campsie L.Symington C.Beattie A.McKinlay W.1986. The five year outcome of severe blunt head injury: A relative's viewJ. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry49764-770. Brooks, N., Campsie, L., Symington, C., Beattie, A., and McKinlay, W. (1986). The five year outcome of severe blunt head injury: A relative's view. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 49, 764–770.
Bruns J.J.Hauser W.A.2003. The epidemiology of traumatic brain injury: A reviewEpilepsia442-10. Bruns, J.J., and Hauser, W.A. (2003). The epidemiology of traumatic brain injury: A review. Epilepsia 44, 2–10.
Cassidy J.1989. Fluoxetine: A new serotonergically active antidepressantJ. Head Trauma Rehabil.467-69. Cassidy, J. (1989). Fluoxetine: A new serotonergically active antidepressant. J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 4, 67–69.
Chen C.P.Alder J.T.Bowen D.M.Esiri M.M.McDonald B.Hope T.Jobst K.A.Francis P.T.1996. Presynaptic serotonergic markers in community-acquired cases of Alzheimer's disease: Correlations with depression and neuroleptic medicationJ. Neurochem.661592-1598. Chen, C.P., Alder, J.T., Bowen, D.M., Esiri, M.M., McDonald, B., Hope, T., Jobst, K.A., and Francis, P.T. (1996). Presynaptic serotonergic markers in community-acquired cases of Alzheimer's disease: Correlations with depression and neuroleptic medication. J. Neurochem. 66, 1592–1598.
Chen J.K.Johnston K.M.Petrides M.Ptito A.2008. Neural substrates of symptoms of depression following concussion in male athletes with persisting postconcussion symptomsArch. Gen. Psychiatry6581-89. Chen, J.K., Johnston, K.M., Petrides, M., and Ptito, A. (2008). Neural substrates of symptoms of depression following concussion in male athletes with persisting postconcussion symptoms. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 65, 81–89.
Christensen B.Ross T.Kotasek R.Rosenthal M.Henry R.1994. The role of depression in rehabilitation outcomes in the acute recovery of patients with TBIAdv. Med. Psychother.723-38. Christensen, B., Ross, T., Kotasek, R., Rosenthal, M., and Henry, R. (1994). The role of depression in rehabilitation outcomes in the acute recovery of patients with TBI. Adv. Med. Psychother. 7, 23–38.
Cuijpers P.van Straten A.Wamerdam L.2007a. Behavioral activation treatments of depression: A meta-analysisClin. Psychol. Rev.27318-326. Cuijpers, P., van Straten, A., and Wamerdam, L. (2007a). Behavioral activation treatments of depression: A meta-analysis. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 27, 318–326.
Cuijpers P.van Straten A.Wamerdam L.2007b. Problem solving therapies for depression: A meta-analysisEur. Psychiatry229-15. Cuijpers, P., van Straten, A., and Wamerdam, L. (2007b). Problem solving therapies for depression: A meta-analysis. Eur. Psychiatry 22, 9–15.
Deb S.Lyons I.Koutzoukis C.Ali I.McCarthy G.1999. Rate of psychiatric illness 1 year after traumatic brain injuryAm. J. Psychiatry156374-378. Deb, S., Lyons, I., Koutzoukis, C., Ali, I., and McCarthy, G. (1999). Rate of psychiatric illness 1 year after traumatic brain injury. Am. J. Psychiatry 156, 374–378.
DeRubeis R.J.Hollon S.D.Amsterdam J.D.Shelton R.C.Young P.R.Salomon R.M.O'Reardon J.P.Lovett M.L.Gladis M.M.Brown L.L.Gallop R.2005. Cognitive therapy vs. medications in the treatment of moderate to severe depressionArch. Gen. Psychiatry62409-416. DeRubeis, R.J., Hollon, S.D., Amsterdam, J.D., Shelton, R.C., Young, P.R., Salomon, R.M., O'Reardon, J.P., Lovett, M.L., Gladis, M.M., Brown, L.L., and Gallop, R. (2005). Cognitive therapy vs. medications in the treatment of moderate to severe depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 62, 409–416.
Dijkers M.Kropp G.C.Esper R.M.Yavuzer G.Cullen N.Bakdalieh Y.2002. Quality of intervention research reporting in medical rehabilitation journalsAm. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil.8121-33. Dijkers, M., Kropp, G.C., Esper, R.M., Yavuzer, G., Cullen, N., and Bakdalieh, Y. (2002). Quality of intervention research reporting in medical rehabilitation journals. Am. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 81, 21–33.
DiMatteo M.R.Lepper H.S.Croghan T.W.2000. Depression is a risk factor for noncompliance with medical treatment: Meta-analysis of the effects of anxiety and depression on patient adherenceArch. Intern. Med.1602101-2107. DiMatteo, M.R., Lepper, H.S., and Croghan, T.W. (2000). Depression is a risk factor for noncompliance with medical treatment: Meta-analysis of the effects of anxiety and depression on patient adherence. Arch. Intern. Med. 160, 2101–2107.
Dimidjian S.Hollon S.D.Dobson K.S.Schmaling K.B.Kohlenberg R.J.Addis M.E.Gallop R.McGlinchey J.B.Markley D.K.Gollan J.K.Atkins D.C.Dunner D.L.Jacobson N.S.2006. Randomized trial of behavioral activation, cognitive therapy, and antidepressant medication in the acute treatment of adults with major depressionJ. Consult. Clin. Psychol.74658-670. Dimidjian, S., Hollon, S.D., Dobson, K.S., Schmaling, K.B., Kohlenberg, R.J., Addis, M.E., Gallop, R., McGlinchey, J.B., Markley, D.K., Gollan, J.K., Atkins, D.C., Dunner, D.L., and Jacobson, N.S. (2006). Randomized trial of behavioral activation, cognitive therapy, and antidepressant medication in the acute treatment of adults with major depression. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 74, 658–670.
Dinan T.G.Mobayed M.1992. Treatment resistance of depression after head injury: A preliminary study of amitriptyline responseActa Psychiatr. Scand.85292-294. Dinan, T.G., and Mobayed, M. (1992). Treatment resistance of depression after head injury: A preliminary study of amitriptyline response. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 85, 292–294.
Donnellan C.P.2006. Acupuncture for central pain affecting the ribcage following traumatic brain injury and rib fractures—a case reportAcupunct. Med.24129-133. Donnellan, C.P. (2006). Acupuncture for central pain affecting the ribcage following traumatic brain injury and rib fractures—a case report. Acupunct. Med. 24, 129–133.
Edlund W.Gronseth G.So Y.Franklin G.2004Clinical Practice Guideline Process ManualAmerican Academy of NeurologySt. Paul, MN. Edlund, W., Gronseth, G., So, Y., and Franklin, G. (2004). Clinical Practice Guideline Process Manual. American Academy of Neurology: St. Paul, MN.
Fann J.R.Bombardier C.H.Dikmen S.Esselman P.Warms C.A.Pelzer E.Rau H.Temkin N.2005. Validity of the patient health questionnaire-9 in assessing depression following traumatic brain injuryJ. Head Trauma Rehabil.20501-511. Fann, J.R., Bombardier, C.H., Dikmen, S., Esselman, P., Warms, C.A., Pelzer, E., Rau, H., and Temkin, N. (2005). Validity of the patient health questionnaire-9 in assessing depression following traumatic brain injury. J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 20, 501–511.
2401
Fann J.R.Bombardier C.H.Temkin N.R.Esselman P.Pelzer E.Keough M.Romero H.Dikmen S.2003. Incidence, severity, and phenomenology of depression and anxiety in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injuryPsychosomatics44161. Fann, J.R., Bombardier, C.H., Temkin, N.R., Esselman, P., Pelzer, E., Keough, M., Romero, H., and Dikmen, S. (2003). Incidence, severity, and phenomenology of depression and anxiety in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Psychosomatics 44, 161.
Fann J.R.Burington B.Leonetti A.Jaffe K.Katon W.J.Thompson R.S.2004. Psychiatric illness following traumatic brain injury in an adult health maintenance organization populationArch. Gen. Psychiatry6153-61. Fann, J.R., Burington, B., Leonetti, A., Jaffe, K., Katon, W.J., and Thompson, R.S. (2004). Psychiatric illness following traumatic brain injury in an adult health maintenance organization population. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 61, 53–61.
Fann J.R.Katon W.J.Uomoto J.M.Esselman P.C.1995. Psychiatric disorders and functional disability in outpatients with traumatic brain injuriesAm. J. Psychiatry1521493-1499. Fann, J.R., Katon, W.J., Uomoto, J.M., Esselman, P.C. (1995). Psychiatric disorders and functional disability in outpatients with traumatic brain injuries. Am. J. Psychiatry 152, 1493–1499.
Fann J.R.Uomoto J.M.Katon W.J.2001. Cognitive improvement with treatment of depression following mild traumatic brain injuryPsychosomatics4248-54. Fann, J.R., Uomoto, J.M., and Katon, W.J. (2001). Cognitive improvement with treatment of depression following mild traumatic brain injury. Psychosomatics 42, 48–54.
Fann J.R.Uomoto J.M.Katon W.J.2000. Sertraline in the treatment of major depression following mild traumatic brain injuryJ. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci.12226-232. Fann, J.R., Uomoto, J.M., and Katon, W.J. (2000). Sertraline in the treatment of major depression following mild traumatic brain injury. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 12, 226–232.
Fedoroff J.P.Starkstein S.E.Parikh R.M.Price T.R.Robinson R.G.1991. Are depressive symptoms nonspecific in patients with acute stroke?Am. J. Psychiatry1481172-1176. Fedoroff, J.P., Starkstein, S.E., Parikh, R.M., Price, T.R., and Robinson, R.G. (1991). Are depressive symptoms nonspecific in patients with acute stroke? Am. J. Psychiatry 148, 1172–1176.
Federoff J.Starkstein S.E.Forrester A.W.Geisler F.Jorge R.Arndt S.Robinson R.1992. Depression in patients with acute traumatic brain injuryAm. J. Psychiatry149918-923. Federoff, J., Starkstein, S.E., Forrester, A.W., Geisler, F., Jorge, R., Arndt, S., and Robinson, R. (1992). Depression in patients with acute traumatic brain injury. Am. J. Psychiatry 149, 918–923.
Finkelstein E.A.Corso P.C.Miller T.R.Fiebelkorn I.A.Zaloshnja E.Lawrence B.A.2006Incidence and Economic Burden of Injuries in the United States, 2000Oxford University PressNew York. Finkelstein, E.A., Corso, P.C., Miller, T.R., Fiebelkorn, I.A., Zaloshnja, E., and Lawrence, B.A. (2006). Incidence and Economic Burden of Injuries in the United States, 2000. Oxford University Press: New York.
Furukawa T.McGuire H.Barbui C.2003. Low dosage tricyclic antidepressants for depressionCochrane Database Syst. Rev.3CD003197. Furukawa, T., McGuire, H., and Barbui, C. (2003). Low dosage tricyclic antidepressants for depression. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 3, CD003197.
Gilbody S.Bower P.Fletcher J.Richards D.Sutton A.J.2006. Collaborative care for depression: A cumulative meta-analysis and review of longer-term outcomesArch. Intern. Med.1662314-2321. Gilbody, S., Bower, P., Fletcher, J., Richards, D., and Sutton, A.J. (2006). Collaborative care for depression: A cumulative meta-analysis and review of longer-term outcomes. Arch. Intern. Med. 166, 2314–2321.
Gomez-Hernandez R.Max J.E.Kosier T.Paradiso S.Robinson R.G.1997. Social impairment and depression after traumatic brain injuryArch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.781321-1326. Gomez-Hernandez, R., Max, J.E., Kosier, T., Paradiso, S., and Robinson, R.G. (1997). Social impairment and depression after traumatic brain injury. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 78, 1321–1326.
Gurr B.Coetzer B.R.2005. The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy for post-traumatic headachesBrain Inj.19481-491. Gurr, B., and Coetzer, B.R. (2005). The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy for post-traumatic headaches. Brain Inj. 19, 481–491.
Hackett M.L.Anderson C.S.House A.Xia J.2008. Interventions for treating depression after strokeCochrane Database Syst. Rev.4CD003437. Hackett, M.L., Anderson, C.S., House, A., and Xia, J. (2008). Interventions for treating depression after stroke. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 4, CD003437.
Hart T.Fann J.R.Novack T.A.2008. The dilemma of the control condition in experience-based cognitive and behavioural treatment researchNeuropsychol. Rehabil.181-21. Hart, T., Fann, J.R., and Novack, T.A. (2008). The dilemma of the control condition in experience-based cognitive and behavioural treatment research. Neuropsychol. Rehabil. 18, 1–21.
Hart T.2009. Treatment definition in complex rehabilitation interventionsNeuropsychol. Rehabil. June181-17[Epub ahead of print]. Hart, T. (2009). Treatment definition in complex rehabilitation interventions. Neuropsychol. Rehabil. June 18, 1–17 [Epub ahead of print].
Hibbard M.R.Uysal S.Kepler K.Bogdany J.Silver J.1998. Axis I psychopathology in individuals with traumatic brain injuryJ. Head Trauma Rehabil.1324-39. Hibbard, M.R., Uysal, S., Kepler, K., Bogdany, J., and Silver, J. (1998). Axis I psychopathology in individuals with traumatic brain injury. J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 13, 24–39.
Hoge C.W.McGurk D.Thomas J.L.Cox A.L.Engel C.C.Castro C.A.2008. Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. soldiers returning from IraqN. Engl. J. Med.358453-463. Hoge, C.W., McGurk, D., Thomas, J.L., Cox, A.L., Engel, C.C., and Castro, C.A. (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury in U.S. soldiers returning from Iraq. N. Engl. J. Med. 358, 453–463.
Horsfield S.A.Rosse R.B.Tomasino V.Schwartz B.L.Mastropaolo J.Deutsch S.I.2002. Fluoxetine's effects on cognitive performance in patients with traumatic brain injuryInt. J. Psychiatry Med.32337-344. Horsfield, S.A., Rosse, R.B., Tomasino, V., Schwartz, B.L., Mastropaolo, J., and Deutsch, S.I. (2002). Fluoxetine's effects on cognitive performance in patients with traumatic brain injury. Int. J. Psychiatry Med. 32, 337–344.
Johnston M.V.Sherer M.Whyte J.2006. Applying evidence standards to rehabilitation researchAm. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil.85292-309. Johnston, M.V., Sherer, M., and Whyte, J. (2006). Applying evidence standards to rehabilitation research. Am. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 85, 292–309.
Jorge R.E.Robinson R.G.Arndt S.1993a. Are there symptoms that are specific for depressed mood in patients with traumatic brain injury?J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.18191-99. Jorge, R.E., Robinson, R.G., and Arndt, S. (1993a). Are there symptoms that are specific for depressed mood in patients with traumatic brain injury? J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 181, 91–99.
Jorge R.E.Robinson R.G.Arndt S.V.Starkstein S.E.Forrester A.W.Geisler F.1993b. Depression following traumatic brain injury: A 1 year longitudinal studyJ. Affect. Disord.27233-243. Jorge, R.E., Robinson, R.G., Arndt, S.V., Starkstein, S.E., Forrester, A.W., and Geisler, F. (1993b). Depression following traumatic brain injury: A 1 year longitudinal study. J. Affect. Disord. 27, 233–243.
Jorge R.E.Robinson R.G.Moser D.Tateno A.Crespo-Facorro B.Arndt S.2004. Major depression following traumatic brain injuryArch. Gen. Psychiatry6142-50. Jorge, R.E., Robinson, R.G., Moser, D., Tateno, A., Crespo-Facorro, B., and Arndt, S. (2004). Major depression following traumatic brain injury. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 61, 42–50.
Kanetani K.Kimura M.Endo S.2003. Therapeutic effects of milnacipran (serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor) on depression following mild and moderate traumatic brain injuryJ. Nippon. Med. Sch.70313-320. Kanetani, K., Kimura, M., and Endo, S. (2003). Therapeutic effects of milnacipran (serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor) on depression following mild and moderate traumatic brain injury. J. Nippon. Med. Sch. 70, 313–320.
Kant R.Coffey C.E.Bogyi A.M.1999. Safety and efficacy of ECT in patients with head injury a case seriesJ. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci.1132. Kant, R., Coffey, C.E., and Bogyi, A.M. (1999). Safety and efficacy of ECT in patients with head injury a case series. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 11, 32.
Khateb A.Ammann J.Annoni J.M.Diserens K.2005. Cognition-enhancing effects of donepezil in traumatic brain injuryEur. Neurol.5439. Khateb, A., Ammann, J., Annoni, J.M., and Diserens, K. (2005). Cognition-enhancing effects of donepezil in traumatic brain injury. Eur. Neurol. 54, 39.
Kolakowsky-Hayner S.A.Gourley E.V. 3rdKreutzer J.S.Marwitz J.H.Meade M.A.Cifu D.X.2002. Post-injury substance abuse among persons with brain injury and persons with spinal cord injuryBrain Inj.16583-592. Kolakowsky-Hayner, S.A., Gourley, E.V. 3rd, Kreutzer, J.S., Marwitz, J.H., Meade, M.A., and Cifu, D.X. (2002). Post-injury substance abuse among persons with brain injury and persons with spinal cord injury. Brain Inj. 16, 583–592.
Koponen S.Taiminen T.Portin R.Himanen L.Isoniemi H.Heinonen H.Hinkka S.Tenovuo O.2002. Axis I and II psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury: A 30-year follow-up studyAm. J. Psychiatry1591315-1321. Koponen, S., Taiminen, T., Portin, R., Himanen, L., Isoniemi, H., Heinonen, H., Hinkka, S., and Tenovuo, O. (2002). Axis I and II psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury: A 30-year follow-up study. Am. J. Psychiatry 159, 1315–1321.
Kraus J.McArthur D.L.1999. Incidence and prevalence of, and costs associated with, traumatic brain injuryRehabilitation of the Adult and Child with Traumatic Brain InjuryM. RosenthalJ.S. KreutzerE. Griffith et al.FA DavisPhiladelphia3-18. Kraus, J., and McArthur, D.L. (1999). Incidence and prevalence of, and costs associated with, traumatic brain injury, in: Rehabilitation of the Adult and Child with Traumatic Brain Injury. M. Rosenthal, J.S. Kreutzer, E. Griffith, et al. (eds), FA Davis: Philadelphia, pps. 3–18.
Kreutzer J.S.Marwitz J.H.Walker W.Sander A.Sherer M.Bogner J.Fraser R.Bushnik T.2003. Moderating factors in return to work and job stability after traumatic brain injuryJ. Head Trauma Rehabil.18128-138. Kreutzer, J.S., Marwitz, J.H., Walker, W., Sander, A., Sherer, M., Bogner, J., Fraser, R., and Bushnik, T. (2003). Moderating factors in return to work and job stability after traumatic brain injury. J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 18, 128–138.
Lee H.Kim S.W.Kim J.M.Shin I.S.Yang S.J.Yoon J.S.2005. Comparing effects of methylphenidate, sertraline and placebo on neuropsychiatric sequelae in patients with traumatic brain injuryHum. Psychopharmacol.2097-104. Lee, H., Kim, S.W., Kim, J.M., Shin, I.S., Yang, S.J., and Yoon, J.S. (2005). Comparing effects of methylphenidate, sertraline and placebo on neuropsychiatric sequelae in patients with traumatic brain injury. Hum. Psychopharmacol. 20, 97–104.
Levin H.Kraus M.F.1994. The frontal lobes and traumatic brain injuryJ. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci.6443-454. Levin, H., and Kraus, M.F. (1994). The frontal lobes and traumatic brain injury. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 6, 443–454.
Martino C.Krysko M.Petrides G.Tobias K.G.Kellner C.H.2008. Cognitive tolerability of electroconvulsive therapy in a patient with a history of traumatic brain injuryJ. ECT.2492-95. Martino, C., Krysko, M., Petrides, G., Tobias, K.G., and Kellner, C.H. (2008). Cognitive tolerability of electroconvulsive therapy in a patient with a history of traumatic brain injury. J. ECT. 24, 92–95.
Mayberg H.S.1994. Frontal lobe dysfunction in secondary depressionJ. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci.6428-442. Mayberg, H.S. (1994). Frontal lobe dysfunction in secondary depression. J. Neuropsychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 6, 428–442.
McMillan T.2002. Brief mindfulness training for attentional problems after traumatic brain injury: A randomised control treatment trialNeuropsychol. Rehabil.12117-125. McMillan, T. (2002). Brief mindfulness training for attentional problems after traumatic brain injury: A randomised control treatment trial. Neuropsychol. Rehabil. 12, 117–125.
Medical Research Council2000A Framework for Development and Evaluation of RCTs for Complex Interventions to Improve HealthMRCLondon. Medical Research Council. (2000). A Framework for Development and Evaluation of RCTs for Complex Interventions to Improve Health. MRC: London.
Miller J.Pentland B.Berrol S.1990. Early evaluation and managementRehabilitation of the Adult and Child with Traumatic Brain InjuryM. RosenthalE. GriffithM. BondJ. MillerFA DavisPhiladelphia21-51. Miller, J., Pentland, B., and Berrol, S. (1990). Early evaluation and management, in: Rehabilitation of the Adult and Child with Traumatic Brain Injury. M. Rosenthal, E. Griffith, M. Bond, J. Miller (eds), FA Davis: Philadelphia, pps. 21–51.
2402
Moncrieff J.Wessely S.Hardy R.2004. Active placebos versus antidepressants for depressionCochrane Database Syst. Rev.1CD003012. Moncrieff, J., Wessely, S., and Hardy, R. (2004). Active placebos versus antidepressants for depression. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 1, CD003012.
Newburn G.Edwards R.Thomas H.Collier J.Fox K.Collins C.1999. Meclobemide in the treatment of major depressive disorder (DSM-3) following traumatic brain injuryBrain Inj.13637-642. Newburn, G., Edwards, R., Thomas, H., Collier, J., Fox, K., and Collins, C. (1999). Meclobemide in the treatment of major depressive disorder (DSM-3) following traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 13, 637–642.
NIH consensus development panel on rehabilitation of persons with traumatic brain injury1999. Rehabilitation of persons with traumatic brain injuryJAMA282974-983. NIH consensus development panel on rehabilitation of persons with traumatic brain injury. (1999). Rehabilitation of persons with traumatic brain injury. JAMA 282, 974–983.
Ownsworth T.2005. The impact of defensive denial upon adjustment following traumatic brain injuryNeuro-Psychoanalysis783-94. Ownsworth, T. (2005). The impact of defensive denial upon adjustment following traumatic brain injury. Neuro-Psychoanalysis 7, 83–94.
Perino C.Rago R.Cicolini A.Torta R.Monaco F.2001. Mood and behavioural disorders following traumatic brain injury: Clinical evaluation and pharmacological managementBrain Inj.15139-148. Perino, C., Rago, R., Cicolini, A., Torta, R., and Monaco, F. (2001). Mood and behavioural disorders following traumatic brain injury: Clinical evaluation and pharmacological management. Brain Inj. 15, 139–148.
Powell J.Heslin J.Greenwood R.2002. Community based rehabilitation after severe traumatic brain injury: A randomised controlled trialJ. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat.72193. Powell, J., Heslin, J., and Greenwood, R. (2002). Community based rehabilitation after severe traumatic brain injury: A randomised controlled trial. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiat. 72, 193.
Rapoport M.J.Chan F.Lanctot K.Herrmann N.McCullagh S.Feinstein A.2008. An open-label study of citalopram for major depression following traumatic brain injuryJ. Psychopharmacol.22860-864. Rapoport, M.J., Chan, F., Lanctot, K., Herrmann, N., McCullagh, S., and Feinstein, A. (2008). An open-label study of citalopram for major depression following traumatic brain injury. J. Psychopharmacol. 22, 860–864.
Robinson R.G.Lipsey J.R.Price T.R.1985. Diagnosis and clinical management of post-stroke depressionPsychosomatics26769-772775–768. Robinson, R.G., Lipsey, J.R., and Price, T.R. (1985). Diagnosis and clinical management of post-stroke depression. Psychosomatics 26, 769–772, 775–768.
Rosenthal M.Christensen B.K.Ross T.P.1998. Depression following traumatic brain injuryArch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.7990-103. Rosenthal, M., Christensen, B.K., and Ross, T.P. (1998). Depression following traumatic brain injury. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 79, 90–103.
Rutherford W.H.1977. Sequelae of concussion caused by minor head injuriesLancet11-4. Rutherford, W.H. (1977). Sequelae of concussion caused by minor head injuries. Lancet 1, 1–4.
Sander A.Kreutzer J.Rosenthal M.Delmonico R.Young M.E.1996. A multicenter longitudinal investigation of return to work and community integration following traumatic brain injuryJ. Head Trauma Rehabil.1170-84. Sander, A., Kreutzer, J., Rosenthal, M., Delmonico, R., and Young, M.E. (1996). A multicenter longitudinal investigation of return to work and community integration following traumatic brain injury. J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 11, 70–84.
Saran A.S.1985. Depression after minor closed head injury: Role of dexamethasone suppression test and antidepressantsJ. Clin. Psychiatry46335-338. Saran, A.S. (1985). Depression after minor closed head injury: Role of dexamethasone suppression test and antidepressants. J. Clin. Psychiatry 46, 335–338.
Schoenberger N.E.Shiflett S.C.Esty M.L.Ochs L.Matheis R.J.2001. Flexyx neurotherapy system in the treatment of traumatic brain injury: An initial evaluationJ. Head Trauma Rehabil.16260-274. Schoenberger, N.E., Shiflett, S.C., Esty, M.L., Ochs, L., and Matheis, R.J. (2001). Flexyx neurotherapy system in the treatment of traumatic brain injury: An initial evaluation. J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 16, 260–274.
Schoenhuber R.Gentilini M.1988. Anxiety and depression after mild head injury: A case control studyJ. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry51722-724. Schoenhuber, R., and Gentilini, M. (1988). Anxiety and depression after mild head injury: A case control study. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 51, 722–724.
Seel R.T.Kreutzer J.S.2003a. Depression assessment after traumatic brain injury: An empirically based classification methodArch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.841621-1628. Seel, R.T., and Kreutzer, J.S. (2003a). Depression assessment after traumatic brain injury: An empirically based classification method. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 84, 1621–1628.
Seel R.T.Kreutzer J.S.Rosenthal M.Hammond F.M.Corrigan J.D.Black K.2003b. Depression after traumatic brain injury: A national institute on disability and rehabilitation research model systems multicenter investigationArch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.84177-184. Seel, R.T., Kreutzer, J.S., Rosenthal, M., Hammond, F.M., Corrigan, J.D., and Black, K. (2003b). Depression after traumatic brain injury: A national institute on disability and rehabilitation research model systems multicenter investigation. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 84, 177–184.
Stanislav S.W.Childs N.L.1999. Dystonia associated with sertralineJ. Clin. Psychopharmacol.1998-100. Stanislav, S.W., and Childs, N.L. (1999). Dystonia associated with sertraline. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 19, 98–100.
Svendsen H.A.Teasdale T.W.Pinner M.2004. Subjective experience in patients with brain injury and their close relatives before and after a rehabilitation programmeNeuropsychol. Rehabil.14495-515. Svendsen, H.A., Teasdale, T.W., and Pinner, M. (2004). Subjective experience in patients with brain injury and their close relatives before and after a rehabilitation programme. Neuropsychol. Rehabil. 14, 495–515.
Tagliaferri F.Compagnone C.Korsic M.Servadei F.Kraus J.2006. A systematic review of brain injury epidemiology in EuropeActa Neurochir. (Wien.)148255-268. Tagliaferri, F., Compagnone, C., Korsic, M., Servadei, F., and Kraus, J. (2006). A systematic review of brain injury epidemiology in Europe. Acta Neurochir. (Wien.) 148, 255–268.
Tanielian T.Jaycox L.H.2008Invisible Wounds of War: Psychological and Cognitive Injuries, Their Consequences, and Services to Assist RecoveryRAND Center for Military Health Policy ResearchSanta Monica, CA. Tanielian, T., and Jaycox, L.H. (eds.) (2008). Invisible Wounds of War: Psychological and Cognitive Injuries, Their Consequences, and Services to Assist Recovery. RAND Center for Military Health Policy Research: Santa Monica, CA.
Thase M.E.2008. Are SNRIs more effective than SSRIs? A review of the current state of the controversyPsychopharmacol. Bull.4158-85. Thase, M.E. (2008). Are SNRIs more effective than SSRIs? A review of the current state of the controversy. Psychopharmacol. Bull. 41, 58–85.
Thurman D.Guerrero J.1999. Trends in hospitalization associated with traumatic brain injuryJAMA282954-957. Thurman, D., and Guerrero, J. (1999). Trends in hospitalization associated with traumatic brain injury. JAMA 282, 954–957.
Tiersky L.A.Anselmi V.Johnston M.V.Kurtyka J.Roosen E.Schwartz T.DeLuca J.2005. A trial of neuropsychologic rehabilitation in mild-spectrum traumatic brain injuryArch. Phys. Med. Rehabil.861565-1574. Tiersky, L.A., Anselmi, V., Johnston, M.V., Kurtyka, J., Roosen, E., Schwartz, T., and DeLuca, J. (2005). A trial of neuropsychologic rehabilitation in mild-spectrum traumatic brain injury. Arch. Phys. Med. Rehabil. 86, 1565–1574.
Turner-Stokes L.Hassan N.Pierce K.Clegg F.2002. Managing depression in brain injury rehabilitation: The use of an integrated care pathway and preliminary report of response to sertralineClin. Rehabil.16261-268. Turner-Stokes, L., Hassan, N., Pierce, K., and Clegg, F. (2002). Managing depression in brain injury rehabilitation: The use of an integrated care pathway and preliminary report of response to sertraline. Clin. Rehabil. 16, 261–268.
van Zomeren A.H.van den Burg W.1985. Residual complaints of patients two years after severe head injuryJ. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry4821-28. van Zomeren, A.H., and van den Burg, W. (1985). Residual complaints of patients two years after severe head injury. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 48, 21–28.
Warden D.L.Gordon B.McAllister T.W.Silver J.M.Barth J.T.Bruns J.Drake A.Gentry T.Jagoda A.Katz D.L.Kraus J.Labbate L.A.Ryan L.M.Sparling M.B.Walters B.Whyte J.Zapata A.Zitnay G.2006. Guidelines for the pharmacologic treatment of neurobehavioral sequelae of traumatic brain injuryJ. Neurotrauma.231468-1501. Warden, D.L., Gordon, B., McAllister, T.W., Silver, J.M., Barth, J.T., Bruns, J., Drake, A., Gentry, T., Jagoda, A., Katz, D.L., Kraus, J., Labbate, L.A., Ryan, L.M., Sparling, M.B., Walters, B., Whyte, J., Zapata, A., and Zitnay, G. (2006). Guidelines for the pharmacologic treatment of neurobehavioral sequelae of traumatic brain injury. J. Neurotrauma. 23, 1468–1501.
Wroblewski B.A.Joseph A.B.Cornblatt R.R.1996. Antidepressant pharmacotherapy and the treatment of depression in patients with severe traumatic brain injury: A controlled, prospective studyJ. Clin. Psychiatry57582-587. Wroblewski, B.A., Joseph, A.B., and Cornblatt, R.R. (1996). Antidepressant pharmacotherapy and the treatment of depression in patients with severe traumatic brain injury: A controlled, prospective study. J. Clin. Psychiatry 57, 582–587.
Wroblewski B.A.McColgan K.Smith K.Whyte J.Singer W.D.1990. The incidence of seizures during tricyclic antidepressant drug treatment in a brain-injured populationJ. Clin. Psychopharmacol.10124-128. Wroblewski, B.A., McColgan, K., Smith, K., Whyte, J., and Singer, W.D. (1990). The incidence of seizures during tricyclic antidepressant drug treatment in a brain-injured population. J. Clin. Psychopharmacol. 10, 124–128.
Zaloshnja E.Miller T.Langlois J.A.Selassie A.W.2008. Prevalence of long-term disability from traumatic brain injury in the civilian population of the United States, 2005J. Head Trauma Rehabil.23394-400. Zaloshnja, E., Miller, T., Langlois, J.A., and Selassie, A.W. (2008). Prevalence of long-term disability from traumatic brain injury in the civilian population of the United States, 2005. J. Head Trauma Rehabil. 23, 394–400.

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

cover image Journal of Neurotrauma
Journal of Neurotrauma
Volume 26Issue Number 12December 2009
Pages: 2383 - 2402
PubMed: 19698070

History

Published online: 23 December 2009
Published ahead of print: 8 December 2009
Published in print: December 2009
Published ahead of production: 21 August 2009

Permissions

Request permissions for this article.

Topics

Authors

Affiliations

Jesse R. Fann
Departments of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine, and Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.
Tessa Hart
Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania.
Katherine G. Schomer
Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center, Center for Technology and Disability Studies, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington.

Notes

Address correspondence to:
Jesse R. Fann, M.D., M.P.H.
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Box 356560
University of Washington
Seattle, WA 98195
E-mail: [email protected]

Author Disclosure Statement

No conflicting financial interests exist.

Metrics & Citations

Metrics

Citations

Export citation

Select the format you want to export the citations of this publication.

View Options

Get Access

Access content

To read the fulltext, please use one of the options below to sign in or purchase access.

Society Access

If you are a member of a society that has access to this content please log in via your society website and then return to this publication.

Restore your content access

Enter your email address to restore your content access:

Note: This functionality works only for purchases done as a guest. If you already have an account, log in to access the content to which you are entitled.

View options

PDF/EPUB

View PDF/ePub

Full Text

View Full Text

Media

Figures

Other

Tables

Share

Share

Copy the content Link

Share on social media

Back to Top