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Published Online: 19 February 2019

The Effects of Light and Moderate Intensity Exercise on the Femoral Bone and Cerebellum of d-Galactose-Exposed Rats

Publication: Rejuvenation Research
Volume 22, Issue Number 1


Aging causes the degeneration of organs of the locomotor system, including the cerebellum and bones. Exercise may reverse this deterioration. d-galactose has been frequently used in rodents to accelerate aging. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of exercise on cerebellar and serum growth factors, motor activity, and the number of bone cells of the femoral head of d-galactose-treated rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups, that is, three treated groups injected with 300 mg/(mL·kg) body weight (bw) d-galactose solution daily for 4 weeks, and a control group injected with normal saline. Following the 4-week administration of d-galactose solution, two of the treated groups performed light- (45% VO2max) and moderate- (55% VO2max) intensity exercise, by running on a treadmill 4 × a week for 4 weeks. Locomotor activity was examined in rotarod and open field tests. The cerebellar and serum Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts of femoral head was estimated using unbiased stereological methods. It was found that the number of osteoclasts was higher in the d-galactose-treated group than the normal control and moderate-intensity exercise groups. No significant difference between groups was found in the rotarod and open field test performance, IGF-1 and BDNF levels, as well as number of osteoblasts. In conclusion, a 4-week administration of high-dosed-galactose caused the increase of the number of osteoclasts. A subsequent 4-week moderate-intensity exercise reversed this increase to the normal level.

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Published In

cover image Rejuvenation Research
Rejuvenation Research
Volume 22Issue Number 1February 2019
Pages: 20 - 30
PubMed: 29962322


Published online: 19 February 2019
Published in print: February 2019
Published ahead of print: 23 August 2018
Published ahead of production: 1 July 2018
Accepted: 1 July 2018
Received: 11 January 2018


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Ginus Partadiredja [email protected]
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Nisa Karima
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Lampung, Bandar Lampung, Indonesia.
Kurnia Putri Utami
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, Malang, Indonesia.
Denny Agustiningsih
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
Zaenal Muttaqien Sofro
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.


All authors contributed equally to this work.
Address correspondence to: Ginus Partadiredja, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia [email protected]; [email protected]

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No competing financial interests exist.

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