Abstract

The purpose of this article is to present a taxonomy for telemedicine. The field has markedly grown, with an increasing number of applications, a variety of technologies, and newly introduced terminology. A taxonomy would serve to bring conceptual clarity to this burgeoning set of alternatives to in-person healthcare delivery. The article starts with a brief discussion of the importance of taxonomy as an information management strategy to improve knowledge sharing, facilitate research and policy initiatives, and provide some guidance for the orderly development of telemedicine. We provide a conceptual context for the proliferation of related concepts, such as telehealth, e-health, and m-health, as well as a classification of the content of these concepts. Our main concern is to develop an explicit taxonomy of telemedicine and to demonstrate how it can be used to provide definitive information about the true effects of telemedicine in terms of cost, quality, and access. Taxonomy development and refinement is an iterative process. If this initial attempt at classification proves useful, subject matter experts could enhance the development and proliferation of telemedicine by testing, revising, and verifying this taxonomy.

Get full access to this article

View all available purchase options and get full access to this article.

Disclaimer

The authors state that they did their best to address the concerns and issues raised by the reviewers. The authors, however, declare that whatever problems or errors remain in this document are entirely their own responsibility.

References

1.
Tulu BChatterjee SMaheshwari M. Telemedicine taxonomy: A classification toolTelemed J E Health200713349-358. 1. Tulu B, Chatterjee S, Maheshwari M. Telemedicine taxonomy: A classification tool. Telemed J E Health2007;13:349–358.
2.
Rogers P. The philosophy of taxonomyMycologia195850326-332. 2. Rogers P. The philosophy of taxonomy. Mycologia1958;50:326–332.
3.
Einthoven W. Het telecardiogram [The telecardiogram]Nederlands Tijdischrift voor Geeneskunde1906; 1517–1547Henry WBlackburn Jr.Am Heart J195753601-615. 3. Einthoven W. Het telecardiogram [The telecardiogram]. Nederlands Tijdischrift voor Geeneskunde1906;1517–1547. Trans. Henry W Blackburn Jr. Am Heart J1957;53:601–615.
4.
Gershon-Cohen JCooley A. “Telognosis: three years' experience with diagnosis by telephone-transmitted roentgenogramsRadiology195055582-587. 4. Gershon-Cohen J, Cooley A. “Telognosis: three years' experience with diagnosis by telephone-transmitted roentgenograms. Radiology1950;55:582–587.
5.
Jutras ADuckett G. Distant radiodiagnosis: telefluoroscopy and cinefluorographyUnion Med Can1957861284-1289. 5. Jutras A, Duckett G. Distant radiodiagnosis: telefluoroscopy and cinefluorography. Union Med Can1957;86:1284–1289.
6.
Bird KTelediagnosis: A new community health resourceGrant No. 8 CH23-41A6 and 19487. Awarded by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health ServiceJuly 1, 1967–November 301970. 6. Bird K. Telediagnosis: A new community health resource. Grant No. 8 CH23-41A6 and 19487. Awarded by the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service. July 1, 1967–November 30, 1970.
7.
Murphy RBird K. Tele-medicine and occupational health servicesProceedings of the XVI International Congress on Occupational Health1969385-387. 7. Murphy R, Bird K. Tele-medicine and occupational health services. Proceedings of the XVI International Congress on Occupational Health1969;385–387.
8.
Bird K. Telemedicine: Concept and practiceBashshur RArmstrong PYoussef ZTelemedicine, explorations in the use of telecommunications in health careSpringfield, ILCharles Thomas197589-125. 8. Bird K. Telemedicine: Concept and practice. In: Bashshur R, Armstrong P, Youssef Z, eds. Telemedicine, explorations in the use of telecommunications in health care. Springfield, IL: Charles Thomas, 1975:89–125.
9.
Bennet AMRappaport WHSkinner ELTelehealth handbookWashington DCU.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, PHS publication 79-32011978. 9. Bennet AM, Rappaport WH, Skinner EL. Telehealth handbook. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, PHS publication 79-3201, 1978.
10.
American Medical AssociationFirst volume of the transactions of the American Medical AssociationPhiladelphiaAmerican Telemedicine Association1848. 10. American Medical Association. First volume of the transactions of the American Medical Association. Philadelphia: American Telemedicine Association, 1848.
11.
Oh HRizo CEnkin MJadad A. What is eHealth (3): A systematic review of published definitionsJ Med Internet Res20057e1. 11. Oh H, Rizo C, Enkin M, Jadad A. What is eHealth (3): A systematic review of published definitions. J Med Internet Res2005;7:e1.
12.
Istepanian RLacal J. Emerging mobile communications technologies: Some imperative notes on m-HealthIEEE, ed.The 25th Silver Anniversary International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, CancunMexico2003. 12. Istepanian R, Lacal J. Emerging mobile communications technologies: Some imperative notes on m-Health. In: IEEE, ed. The 25th Silver Anniversary International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Cancun, Mexico, 2003.
13.
Istepanian R. Introduction to the special section on m-health: Beyond seamless mobility and global wireless health-care connectivityIEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed20048405-413. 13. Istepanian R. Introduction to the special section on m-health: Beyond seamless mobility and global wireless health-care connectivity. IEEE Trans Inf Technol Biomed2004;8:405–413.
14.
World Health OrganizationTowards the development of an mHealth strategy: A literature reviewGeneva, SwitzerlandWorld Health Organization2008. 14. World Health Organization. Towards the development of an mHealth strategy: A literature review. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2008.
15.
World Health Organization58th World Health Assembly, WHA 58.28Geneva, SwitzerlandWorld Health Organization2005. 15. World Health Organization. 58th World Health Assembly, WHA 58.28. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2005.
16.
Oh et al.op cit. 16. Oh et al. op cit.
17.
Istepanian PLamiarayan SPattichis SM-health emerging mobile health systemsNew YorkSpringer2005. 17. Istepanian P, Lamiarayan S, Pattichis S, eds. M-health emerging mobile health systems. New York: Springer, 2005.
18.
Whited JSummary and Status of Teledermatology Research, American Telemedicine Association, Teledermatology Special Interest Group. 2007http.atmeda.org/ICOT/sigtelederm.htmMay52011. 18. Whited J. Summary and Status of Teledermatology Research, American Telemedicine Association, Teledermatology Special Interest Group. 2007. Available at http.atmeda.org/ICOT/sigtelederm.htm (last accessed May 5, 2011).
19.
Burdick A. Teledermatology: Extending specialty care beyond bordersArch Dermatol20071431581-1582. 19. Burdick A. Teledermatology: Extending specialty care beyond borders Arch Dermatol2007;143:1581–1582.
20.
Nelson BPMelnick ERLi J. Portable ultrasound for remote environments, Part I: Feasibility of field deploymentJ Emerg Med200140190-197. 20. Nelson BP, Melnick ER, Li J. Portable ultrasound for remote environments, Part I: Feasibility of field deployment. J Emerg Med2001;40:190–197.
21.
Cruz MCruz RFKrupinski EALopez AMMcNeeley RMWeinstein RS. Effect of camera resolution and bandwidth on facial affect recognitionTelemed J E Health200410392-402. 21. Cruz M, Cruz RF, Krupinski EA, Lopez AM, McNeeley RM, Weinstein RS. Effect of camera resolution and bandwidth on facial affect recognition. Telemed J E Health2004;10:392–402.
22.
Johnson JPKrupinski EAYan MRoehrig HGraham ARWeinstein RS. Using a visual discrimination model for the detection of compression artifacts in virtual pathology imagesIEEE Trans Med Imaging201030306-314. 22. Johnson JP, Krupinski EA, Yan M, Roehrig H, Graham AR, Weinstein RS. Using a visual discrimination model for the detection of compression artifacts in virtual pathology images. IEEE Trans Med Imaging2010;30:306–314.
23.
Bohnenkamp SKMcDonald PLopez AMKrupinski EBlackett A. Traditional versus telenursing outpatient management of patients with cancer with new ostomiesOncol Nurs Forum2004311005-1010. 23. Bohnenkamp SK, McDonald P, Lopez AM, Krupinski E, Blackett A. Traditional versus telenursing outpatient management of patients with cancer with new ostomies. Oncol Nurs Forum2004;31:1005–1010.
24.
Bashshur R. Telemedicine nomenclature: What does it mean?Telemed J200061-3. 24. Bashshur R. Telemedicine nomenclature: What does it mean?. Telemed J2000;6:1–3.
25.
Dutra JBusch JNASA technical white paper - Enabling knowledge and discovery: Taxonomy development for NASANASA2003. 25. Dutra J, Busch J. NASA technical white paper - Enabling knowledge and discovery: Taxonomy development for NASA. NASA, 2003.

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

cover image Telemedicine and e-Health
Telemedicine and e-Health
Volume 17Issue Number 6July/August 2011
Pages: 484 - 494
PubMed: 21718114

History

Published online: 18 July 2011
Published in print: July/August 2011
Published ahead of print: 30 June 2011
Accepted: 23 May 2011
Received: 23 May 2011

Permissions

Request permissions for this article.

Topics

Authors

Affiliations

Rashid Bashshur, Ph.D.
University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan.
Gary Shannon, Ph.D.
University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.
Elizabeth Krupinski, Ph.D.
University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.
Jim Grigsby, Ph.D.
University of Colorado at Denver, Denver, Colorado.

Notes

Address correspondence to:Rashid Bashshur, Ph.D.University of Michigan Health SystemAnn Arbor, MI 48109-5402E-mail: [email protected]

Disclosure Statement

No competing financial interests exist.

Metrics & Citations

Metrics

Citations

Export citation

Select the format you want to export the citations of this publication.

View Options

Get Access

Access content

To read the fulltext, please use one of the options below to sign in or purchase access.

Society Access

If you are a member of a society that has access to this content please log in via your society website and then return to this publication.

Restore your content access

Enter your email address to restore your content access:

Note: This functionality works only for purchases done as a guest. If you already have an account, log in to access the content to which you are entitled.

View options

PDF/EPUB

View PDF/ePub

Full Text

View Full Text

Media

Figures

Other

Tables

Share

Share

Copy the content Link

Share on social media

Back to Top