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Published Online: 21 March 2023

Development of 3D-Printable Albumin–Alginate Foam for Wound Dressing Applications

Publication: 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing


In this article, a method to develop 3D printable hybrid sodium alginate and albumin foam, crosslinked with calcium chloride mist is introduced. Using this method, highly porous structures are produced without the need of further postprocessing (such as freeze drying). The proposed method is particularly beneficial in the development of wound dressing as the printed foams show excellent lift-off and water absorption properties. Compared with methods that use liquid crosslinker, the use of mist prevents the leaching of biocompounds into the liquid crosslinker. 3D printing technique was chosen to provide more versatility over the wound dressing geometry. Calcium chloride and rhodamine B were used as the crosslinking material and the model drug, respectively. Various biomaterial inks were prepared by different concentrations of sodium alginate and albumin, and the fabricated scaffolds were crosslinked in mist, liquid, or kept without crosslinking. The effects of biomaterial composition and the crosslinking density on the wound dressing properties were assessed through printability studies. The mist-crosslinked biomaterial ink composed of 1% (w/v) sodium alginate and 12% (w/v) albumin showed the superior printability. The fabricated scaffolds were also characterized through porosity, mechanical, degradation, and drug release tests. The mist-crosslinked scaffolds showed superior mechanical properties and provided relatively prolonged drug release.

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Information & Authors


Published In

cover image 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing
3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing


Published online: 21 March 2023




Elias Madadian
Faculty of Sustainable Design Engineering, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Canada.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, École de technologie supérieure, Montreal, Canada.
University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre (CRCHUM), Montreal, Canada.
Emad Naseri
Faculty of Sustainable Design Engineering, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Canada.
Ryan Legault
Faculty of Sustainable Design Engineering, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Canada.
Faculty of Sustainable Design Engineering, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Canada.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, École de technologie supérieure, Montreal, Canada.
University of Montreal Hospital Research Centre (CRCHUM), Montreal, Canada.
Department of Biomedical Science, Atlantic Veterinary College, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, Canada.


Address correspondence to: Ali Ahmadi, Department of Mechanical Engineering, École de technologie supérieure, 1100 Notre-Dame St W, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 1K3, Montreal, Canada [email protected]

Authors' Contributions

E.M.: conceptualization, methodology, software, validation, formal analysis, investigation, writing—original draft, writing—review and editing, and visualization. E.N.: methodology, validation, formal analysis, investigation, writing—original draft, and writing—review and editing. R.L.: validation, investigation, and resources. A.A.: conceptualization, methodology, software, validation, formal analysis, investigation, resources, writing—original draft, writing—review and editing, visualization, supervision, project administration, and funding acquisition.

Author Disclosure Statement

No competing financial interests exist.

Funding Information

This work was supported by the National Sciences and Research Council of Canada (Discovery Grant RGPIN-2017-05272) and Canada Foundation for Innovation (John R. Evans Leader Fund 37696).

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