Research Article
No access
Published Online: 22 January 2008

Preparation of Artificial Kidney Stones of Reproducible Size, Shape, and Mass by Precision Injection Molding

Publication: Journal of Endourology
Volume 22, Issue Number 1

Abstract

Purpose: To prepare artificial kidney stones of defined shape, size, mass, and material composition via precision injection molding of Ultracal 30 cement slurries into an inexpensive biodegradable mold.
Materials and Methods: A calcium alginate and silica–based mold was used to prepare casts of varying shapes in a reproducible manner. Ultracal 30 cement slurries mixed 1:1 with water were injected into these casts and allowed to harden. The artificial stones were recovered and their physical properties determined. Ex-vivo and in-vivo responses to holmium laser lithotripsy were examined.
Results: Spheres, half spheres, cylinders, cubes, tapered conical structures, and flat angulated structures were prepared with high precision without post-molding manipulations. Large spheres of average mass 0.661 g (± 0.037), small spheres of average mass 0.046 g (± 0.0026), and hexagons of average mass 0.752 g (± 0.0180) were found to have densities (1610–1687 kg/m3) within the expected range for Ultracal 30 cement stones. Ex-vivo holmium laser lithotripsy of small spheres in saline showed uniformly reproducible efficiencies of comminution. Implantation of a tapered conical stone into the ureter of a porcine model demonstrated stone comminution in vivo consistent with that seen in the ex-vivo models.
Conclusions: We present an environmentally safe, technically simple procedure for the formation of artificial kidney stones of predetermined size and shape. The technique does not require the use of hazardous solvents or postprocedural processing of the stones. These stones are intended for use in standardized experiments of lithotripsy efficiency in which the shape of the stone as well as the mass can be predetermined and precisely controlled.

Get full access to this article

View all available purchase options and get full access to this article.

Information & Authors

Information

Published In

cover image Journal of Endourology
Journal of Endourology
Volume 22Issue Number 1January 2008
Pages: 127 - 132
PubMed: 18315483

History

Published online: 22 January 2008
Published in print: January 2008

Permissions

Request permissions for this article.

Topics

Authors

Affiliations

Robert I. Carey
Department of Urology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida.
Christopher C. Kyle
Department of Urology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida.
Donna L. Carey
Department of Urology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida.
Raymond J. Leveillee
Department of Urology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida.

Metrics & Citations

Metrics

Citations

Export citation

Select the format you want to export the citations of this publication.

View Options

Get Access

Access content

To read the fulltext, please use one of the options below to sign in or purchase access.

Society Access

If you are a member of a society that has access to this content please log in via your society website and then return to this publication.

Restore your content access

Enter your email address to restore your content access:

Note: This functionality works only for purchases done as a guest. If you already have an account, log in to access the content to which you are entitled.

View options

PDF/EPUB

View PDF/ePub

Media

Figures

Other

Tables

Share

Share

Copy the content Link

Share on social media

Back to Top