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Published Online: 3 June 2010

Astaxanthine Secured Apoptotic Death of PC12 Cells Induced by β-Amyloid Peptide 25–35: Its Molecular Action Targets

Publication: Journal of Medicinal Food
Volume 13, Issue Number 3

Abstract

Astaxanthine (ASTx) is a novel carotenoid nutraceutical occurring in many crustaceans and red yeasts. It has potent antioxidant, photoprotective, hepatodetoxicant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Documented effect of ASTx on treatment of neurodegenerative disease is still lacking. We used the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) 25–35-treated PC12 model to investigate the neuron-protective effect of ASTx. The parameters examined included cell viability, caspase activation, and various apoptotic biomarkers that play their critical roles in the transduction pathways independently or synergistically. Results indicated that Aβ25–35 at 30 μM suppressed cell viability by 55%, whereas ASTx was totally nontoxic below a dose of 5.00 μM. ASTx at 0.1 μM protected PC12 cells from damaging effects of Aβ25–35 in several ways: (1) by securing the cell viability; (2) by partially down-regulating the activation of caspase 3; (3) by inhibiting the expression of Bax; (4) by completely eliminating the elevation of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α; (5) by inhibiting the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB; (6) by completely suppressing the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase; (7) by completely abolishing the calcium ion influx to effectively maintain calcium homeostasis; and (8) by suppressing the majority (about 75%) of reactive oxygen species production. Conclusively, ASTx may have merit to be used as a very potential neuron protectant and an anti–early-stage Alzheimer's disease adjuvant therapy.

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Published In

cover image Journal of Medicinal Food
Journal of Medicinal Food
Volume 13Issue Number 3June 2010
Pages: 548 - 556
PubMed: 20521980

History

Published online: 3 June 2010
Published in print: June 2010
Accepted: 4 February 2010
Received: 6 October 2009

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    Affiliations

    Chi-Huang Chang
    Research Institute of Biotechnology, Hungkuang University, Taipei, Taiwan
    Chung-Yin Chen
    Division of Cardiology, Kuang-Tien Complex Hospital, Taichung Hsien, Taiwan
    Jueen-Ya Chiou
    Research Institute of Biotechnology, Hungkuang University, Taipei, Taiwan
    Robert Y. Peng
    Research Institute of Biotechnology, Hungkuang University, Taipei, Taiwan
    Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
    Chiung-Huei Peng
    Research Institute of Biotechnology, Hungkuang University, Taipei, Taiwan

    Notes

    Address correspondence to: Chiung-Huei Peng, Research Institute of Biotechnology, Hungkuang University, 34, Chung-Chie Road, Shalu County, Taichung Hsien, Taiwan 43302, E-mail: [email protected]

    Author Disclosure Statement

    The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

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