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Published Online: 23 April 2019

Postsynaptic GluR2 Involved in Amelioration of Aβ-Induced Memory Dysfunction by KAIXIN-San Through Rescuing Hippocampal LTP in Mice

Publication: Rejuvenation Research
Volume 22, Issue Number 2


Kaixin-San (KXS), a Chinese formula, was used to treat “amnesia,” a senile dementia in the modern world. This formula was reported to improve behavioral performances in many animal models. This study was designed to explore how KXS has improved amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced memory dysfunction in mice. The mouse models were achieved through unilateral ventricle injection with Aβ42. The effects of KXS on memory improvement were evaluated by the step-down test. The electrophysiological changes induced by KXS were measured by long-term potentiation (LTP) analysis in the hippocampus in vivo. The expression of glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2) was observed through immunohistochemical staining. Behavioral experiment outcome demonstrated reduced avoidance time and increased error time during the step-down test in the mice of Aβ group. This memory impairment, however, was reversed by KXS. Electrophysiological experiment showed no significant difference between Aβ group and KXS group either in the size or the shape of field excitatory postsynaptic potentiation recorded from perforant path to dentate gyrus pathway. However, LTP in this region was reduced by Aβ and recovered by KXS administration. Moreover, immunohistochemical staining showed increased postsynaptic GluR2 expression in DG area in KXS group. These findings suggest that Aβ results in impairment to memory function of the animals, and KXS protects the animal from memory loss by rescuing LTP through postsynaptic mechanism which refers to increasing GluR2 expression.

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Information & Authors


Published In

cover image Rejuvenation Research
Rejuvenation Research
Volume 22Issue Number 2April 2019
Pages: 131 - 137
PubMed: 30009679


Published online: 23 April 2019
Published in print: April 2019
Published ahead of print: 29 August 2018
Published ahead of production: 16 July 2018
Accepted: 14 July 2018
Received: 17 April 2018


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    Bo Zhang
    Institute of Chinese Medicine, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin, China.
    Yan Li
    Institute of Chinese Medicine, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin, China.
    Jia-wei Liu
    Department of Organic Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Mudanjiang Medical University, Mudanjiang, China.
    Xue-wei Liu
    Institute of Chinese Medicine, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin, China.
    Department of Neuropharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Qiqihar Medical University, Qiqihar, China.
    Wei Wen
    Institute of Chinese Medicine, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin, China.
    Yu Cui
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Haikou, China.
    Shu-ming Huang [email protected]
    Institute of Chinese Medicine, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin, China.


    Address correspondence to: Shu-ming Huang, Institute of Chinese Medicine, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, 24 Hepinglu, Harbin 150040, China [email protected]

    Authors' Contributions

    Bo Zhang participated in all experimental work; Yan Li and Jiawei Liu were involved in the step-down test and immunohistochemical staining; Xuewei Liu and Wei Wen contributed to electrophysiological experiment; and Yu Cui and Shuming Huang designed the experimental protocols and prepared the article.

    Author Disclosure Statement

    The authors have no competing or conflicting interests to declare.

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